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Acta Cardiol Sin. 2016 Nov;32(6):631-639.

Statin Therapy: Review of Safety and Potential Side Effects.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine (Monash Medical Centre), Monash University and Monash Health, 246 Clayton Road, Clayton, 3168 VIC, Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly called statins, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Evidence suggests that statin therapy has significant mortality and morbidity benefit for both primary and secondary prevention from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, concern has been expressed regarding the adverse effects of long term statin use. The purpose of this article was to review the current medical literature regarding the safety of statins.

METHODS:

Major trials and review articles on the safety of statins were identified in a search of the MEDLINE database from 1980 to 2016, which was limited to English articles.

RESULTS:

Myalgia is the most common side effect of statin use, with documented rates from 1-10%. Rhabdomyolysis is the most serious adverse effect from statin use, though it occurs quite rarely (less than 0.1%). The most common risk factors for statin-related myopathy include hypothyroidism, polypharmacy and alcohol abuse. Derangement in liver function tests is common, affecting up to 1% of patients; however, the clinical significance of this is unknown. Some statin drugs are potentially diabetogenic and the risk appears to increase in those patients on higher doses. Pitavastatin has not been associated with increased risk of diabetes. Statins have not been proven to increase the risk of malignancy, dementia, mood disorders or acute interstitial nephritis. However, statins do have multiple drug interactions, primarily those which interact with the cytochrome p450 enzyme group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, statin drugs appear to be safe for use in the vast majority of patients. However, patients with multiple medical co-morbidities are at increased risk of adverse effects from long-term statin use.

KEYWORDS:

Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia; Statin

PMID:
27899849
PMCID:
PMC5126440

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