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J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:691369. doi: 10.1155/2012/691369. Epub 2012 Aug 7.

Insulin resistance in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Taoyuan Armed Forces General Hospital, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan.

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) development. Insulin resistance (IR) plays a central role in the metabolic syndrome and is associated with increased risk for CKD in nondiabetic patients. IR is common in patients with mild-to-moderate stage CKD, even when the glomerular filtration rate is within the normal range. IR, along with oxidative stress and inflammation, also promotes kidney disease. In patients with end stage renal disease, IR is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and is linked to protein energy wasting and malnutrition. Systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, elevated serum adipokines and fetuin-A, metabolic acidosis, vitamin D deficiency, depressed serum erythropoietin, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and suppressors of cytokine signaling all cause IR by suppressing insulin receptor-PI3K-Akt pathways in CKD. In addition to adequate renal replacement therapy and correction of uremia-associated factors, thiazolidinedione, ghrelin, protein restriction, and keto-acid supplementation are therapeutic options. Weight control, reduced daily prednisolone dosage, and the use of cyclosporin decrease the risk of developing new-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation. Improved understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying IR in CKD may lead to more effective therapeutic strategies to reduce uremia-associated morbidity and mortality.

PMID:
22919275
PMCID:
PMC3420350
DOI:
10.1155/2012/691369
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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