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Front Neuroendocrinol. 2010 Apr;31(2):134-56. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2010.01.001. Epub 2010 Jan 13.

Regulation of the hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neuron by neuronal and peripheral inputs.

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Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University/Rhode Island Hospital, RI, USA. <>


The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis plays a critical role in mediating changes in metabolism and thermogenesis. Thus, the central regulation of the thyroid axis by Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) is of key importance for the normal function of the axis under different physiological conditions including cold stress and changes in nutritional status. Before the TRH peptide becomes biologically active, a series of tightly regulated processes occur including the proper folding of the prohormone for targeting to the secretory pathway, its post-translational processing, and targeting of the processed peptides to the secretory granules near the plasma membrane of the cell ready for secretion. Multiple inputs coming from the periphery or from neurons present in different areas of the brain including the hypothalamus are responsible for the activation or inhibition of the TRH neuron and in turn affect the output of TRH and the set point of the axis.

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