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Kidney Int Suppl. 1998 Dec;68:S92-8.

Blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy and long-term prognosis in hemodialysis patients.

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Department of Nephrology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.


Cardiovascular events are the main cause of death in patients with chronic renal failure who are treated with hemodialysis. Hypertension is frequent among dialysis patients and may be a major cause of mortality, although epidemiological studies are controversial in this regard. This disparity in results may be the consequence of an inadequate definition of hypertension in dialysis patients as well as the interaction with hypertension with other risk factors such as malnutrition or left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which are strong predictors of death. Although the goal of blood pressure in dialysis has not been established yet, it seems that predialysis blood pressure levels lower than 150/90 mm Hg must be achieved for patients to avoid complications. LVH is very frequent among dialysis patients and starts early in the progression of chronic renal failure. Hypertension is the main cause for its development, but other potentially reversible factors such as anemia, volume overload, secondary hyperparathyroidism, dose of dialysis or malnutrition may also be implicated. Hence, an adequate management of patients on hemodialysis must include the strict control of blood pressure, preferably with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, together with those early measures in order to avoid the development of the other causes of LVH or to treat them when they already exist.

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