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Water Res. 2010 Mar;44(5):1307-16. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2009.10.038. Epub 2009 Nov 4.

Estimation of norovirus removal performance in a coagulation-rapid sand filtration process by using recombinant norovirus VLPs.

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1
Division of Built Environment, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13W8, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan. nobutaka@eng.hokudai.ac.jp

Abstract

Norovirus (NV) is an important human pathogen that causes epidemic acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Because of the lack of a cell culture system or an animal model for this virus, studies of drinking water treatment such as separation and disinfection processes are still hampered. We successfully estimated NV removal performance during a coagulation-rapid sand filtration process by using recombinant NV virus-like particles (rNV-VLPs) morphologically and antigenically similar to native NV. The behaviors of two widely accepted surrogates for pathogenic waterborne viruses, bacteriophages Qbeta and MS2, were also investigated for comparison with that of rNV-VLPs. Approximately 3-log(10) removals were observed for rNV-VLPs with a dose of 40 muM-Al or -Fe, as polyaluminum chloride at pH 6.8 or ferric chloride at pH 5.8, respectively. Smaller removal ratios were obtained with alum and ferric chloride at pH 6.8. The removal performance for MS2 was somewhat larger than that for rNV-VLPs, meaning that MS2 is not recommended as an appropriate surrogate for native NV. By comparison, the removal performance for Qbeta was similar to, or smaller than, that for rNV-VLPs. However, the removal performances for rNV-VLPs and Qbeta differed between the coagulation process and the following rapid sand filtration process. Therefore, Qbeta also is not recommended as an appropriate surrogate for native NV.

PMID:
19922975
DOI:
10.1016/j.watres.2009.10.038
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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