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J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Nov 25;57(22):10651-7. doi: 10.1021/jf9028514.

Identification of compounds in adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) seed hull extracts that inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

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Graduate Institute of Food Science and Technology, Center for Food and Biomolecules, College of Bioresources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan.


We investigated the effects of adlay seed hull (AH) extracts on the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 macrophages. An AH ethanol extract (AHE) was partitioned into ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water fractions. Silica gel chromatography of the ethyl acetate fraction yielded 15 subfractions: AHE-Ea-A to AHE-Ea-O. Subfractions AHE-Ea-J, AHE-Ea-K, and AHE-Ea-M had anti-inflammatory activities, as they counteracted the increased cellular production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 induced by lipopolysaccharide by down-regulating inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 expression. Eriodictyol (1), the ceramide (2S,3S,4R)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxytetracosanoyl-amino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol (2), and p-coumaric acid (3) were found in the subfractions, and the first two compounds appeared to be primarily responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity. This is the first time that eriodictyol (1) and this ceramide (2) have been found in AH, and the anti-inflammatory properties of the AHE-Ea fraction can be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of these two compounds.

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