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J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2008 Mar;2(2):261-2.

Combining insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors; where are we to go from here?

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Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


Insulin pump development started in 1978, with the first commercially available glucose sensor marketed in 1999. Combining these two instruments is a logical step toward the closed loop. This article discusses three questions: Is pump development complete? How can a pump and a sensor be combined? Can the delay problem associated with the subcutaneous-subcutaneous approach for the closed loop be overcome?


artificial pancreas; closed loop; continuous glucose monitoring; continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; insulin pump therapy

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