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Resuscitation. 2009 Nov;80(11):1259-63. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2009.08.009. Epub 2009 Sep 4.

Quantitative analysis of chest compression interruptions during in-hospital resuscitation of older children and adolescents.

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The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.



To quantitatively describe pauses in chest compression (CC) delivery during resuscitation from in-hospital pediatric and adolescent cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that CPR error will be more likely after a chest compression provider change compared to other causes for pauses.


CPR recording/feedback defibrillators were used to evaluate CPR quality for victims >/=8 years who received CPR in the PICU/ED. Audiovisual feedback was supplied in accordance with AHA targets. Etiology of CC pauses identified by post-event debriefing/reviews of stored CPR quality data.


Analysis yielded 205 pauses during 304.8 min of CPR from 20 consecutive cardiac arrests. Etiologies were: 57.1% for provider switch; 23.9% for pulse/rhythm analysis; 4.4% for defibrillation; and 14.6% "other." Provider switch accounted for 41.2% of no-flow duration. Compared to other causes, CPR epochs following pauses due to provider switch were more likely to have measurable residual leaning (OR: 5.52; CI(95): 2.94, 10.32; p<0.001) and were shallower (43+/-8 vs. 46+/-7 mm; mean difference: -2.42 mm; CI(95): -4.71, -0.13; p=0.04). Individuals performing continuous CPR>or=120 s as compared to those switching earlier performed deeper chest compressions (42+/-6 vs. 38+/-7 mm; mean difference: 4.44 mm; CI(95): 2.39, 6.49; p<0.001) and were more compliant with guideline depth recommendations (OR: 5.11; CI(95): 1.67, 15.66; p=0.004).


Provider switches account for a significant portion of no-flow time. Measurable residual leaning is more likely after provider switch. Feedback systems may allow some providers to continue high quality CPR past the recommended switch time of 2 min during in-hospital resuscitation attempts.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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