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Virology. 2009 Sep 30;392(2):260-70. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2009.06.052. Epub 2009 Aug 3.

Limited dissemination of pathogenic SIV after vaginal challenge of rhesus monkeys immunized with a live, attenuated lentivirus.

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Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 USA.


In non-human primate models of AIDS, attenuated lentiviruses provide the most reliable protection from challenge with pathogenic virus but the extent to which the vaccine virus replicates after challenge is unclear. At 7 and 14 days after vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIVmac239, plasma SIVenv RNA levels were significantly lower in female macaques immunized 6 months earlier with live, attenuated SHIV89.6 compared to unimmunized control animals. In 2 SHIV-immunized, unprotected macaques SIV replication produced moderate-level plasma viremia with dissemination of challenge virus to all tissues on day 14 after challenge. In protected, SHIV-immunized monkeys, SIV replication was controlled in all tissues, from the day of challenge through 14 days post-challenge. Further, in CD8(+) T cell-depleted SHIV-immunized animals, SIV replication and dissemination were more rapid than in control animals. These findings suggest that replication of a pathogenic AIDS virus can be controlled at the site of mucosal inoculation by live-attenuated lentivirus immunization.

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