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Hypertension. 2009 Feb;53(2):417-22. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.123729. Epub 2008 Dec 15.

Bradykinin protects against oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell senescence.

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Department of Experimental Cardiology, AB 43, University Medical Center Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, Building 3211, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands.


Premature aging (senescence) of endothelial cells might play an important role in the development and progression of hypertension and atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that bradykinin, a hormone that mediates vasoprotective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, protects endothelial cells from oxidative stress-induced senescence. Bradykinin treatment (0.001 to 1 nmol/L) dose-dependently decreased senescence induced by 25 micromol/L of H(2)O(2) in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells, as witnessed by a complete inhibition of increased senescent cell numbers and a 34% reduction of the levels of the senescence-associated cell cycle protein p21. Because H(2)O(2) induces senescence through superoxide-induced DNA damage, single-cell DNA damage was measured by comet assay. Bradykinin reduced DNA damage to control levels. The protective effect of bradykinin also resulted in a significant increase in the migration of H(2)O(2)-treated bovine aorta endothelial cells in an in vitro endothelial injury model, or "scratch" assay. The protective effect of bradykinin was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE-140 and the NO production inhibitor N(omega)-methyl-L-arginine acetate salt. Therefore, we conclude that bradykinin protects endothelial cells from superoxide-induced senescence through bradykinin B2 receptor- and NO-mediated inhibition of DNA damage.

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