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Cell Stem Cell. 2008 Oct 9;3(4):369-81. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2008.09.001.

The systematic production of cells for cell therapies.

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Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E1, Canada.


Stem cells have emerged as the starting material of choice for bioprocesses to produce cells and tissues to treat degenerative, genetic, and immunological disease. Translating the biological properties and potential of stem cells into therapies will require overcoming significant cell-manufacturing and regulatory challenges. Bioprocess engineering fundamentals, including bioreactor design and process control, need to be combined with cellular systems biology principles to guide the development of next-generation technologies capable of producing cell-based products in a safe, robust, and cost-effective manner. The step-wise implementation of these bioengineering strategies will enhance cell therapy product quality and safety, expediting clinical development.

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