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J Diabetes Complications. 2009 Jul-Aug;23(4):239-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2007.12.006. Epub 2008 Apr 16.

The effects of two different hypocaloric diets on glucagon-like peptide 1 in obese adults, relation with insulin response after weight loss.

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Institute of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Medicine School and Unit of Investigation, Hospital Rio Hortega, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.



Few studies have investigated the effect of type of diets on GLP-1 concentrations. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two diets on circulating GLP-1 levels and the relation with insulin response after weight loss.


A population of 118 obese patients were analyzed. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups: (a) Diet I (low carbohydrate) and (b) Diet II (low fat). Biochemical and anthropometric parameters were measured before and after 3 months of hypocaloric diet.


Fifty-two patients (12 male/40 female) were treated with Diet I and 66 patients (21 male/45 female) with Diet II. In Group I, basal GLP-1 levels did not change after dietary treatment (9.4+/-3.3 vs. 9.9+/-3.1 ng/ml; ns). In Group II, GLP-1 levels decreased significantly (8.4%) (9.2+/-3.3 vs 8.7+/-3.1 ng/ml; P<.05). In the multivariate analysis with a dependent variable (levels of GLP-1), only insulin levels remained as an independent predictor in the model (F=5.9; P<.05), with an increase of 0.6 ng/ml (95% CI 0.1-1.1) GLP-1 concentrations with each increase of 1 mUI/ml of insulin.


A hypocaloric diet with a low fat percentage decreased GLP-1 levels with a direct correlation with insulin levels. Nevertheless, patients with a hypocaloric diet with a low carbohydrate percentage treatment did not change GLP-1 levels. Diet macronutrient manipulation on GLP-1 response could be useful in an obesity nutrition therapy.

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