Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Stud Alcohol. 2006 Jul;67(4):538-42.

Development and initial validation of a 12-step participation expectancies questionnaire.

Author information

  • 1Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University, Box G-BH, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA.



There are no available instruments that assess expectancies for participation in 12-step mutual-help groups despite the impact such expectancies may have on actual participation. The purpose of the present study was to develop a measure of attitudes and expectancies regarding 12-step participation, to conduct preliminary analyses on its psychometric properties, and to explore its concurrent and predictive validity.


Alcohol-dependent patients (N=48) undergoing inpatient detoxification completed a questionnaire that included subscales assessing expected benefits of, concerns about, and barriers to 12-step participation. Participants also completed measures of 12-step group participation and drinking outcomes at 1, 3, and 6 months following discharge.


After examining the internal consistency of the items within each subscale and refining the questionnaire accordingly, an exploratory factor analysis showed that the scales could be combined into a higher-order total score. This total score correlated significantly with prior 12-step experience and goals for attending future 12-step meetings. In addition, the Expectancies Total Score at baseline significantly predicted 12-step group participation during follow-up.


The measure of attitudes and expectancies regarding 12-step group participation demonstrated good internal consistency, concurrent validity, and predictive validity. The measure may have clinical utility in highlighting patients' expectancies regarding 12-step participation, allowing treatment providers to explore with patients the benefits, concerns, and barriers to involvement that they have endorsed.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Dartmouth Journal Services
    Loading ...
    Support Center