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Plant Cell. 2005 Nov;17(11):3007-18. Epub 2005 Oct 14.

Multiple type-B response regulators mediate cytokinin signal transduction in Arabidopsis.

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Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA.


Type-B Arabidopsis thaliana response regulators (ARRs) are transcription factors that function in the final step of two-component signaling systems. To characterize their role in plant growth and development, we isolated T-DNA insertions within six of the genes (ARR1, ARR2, ARR10, ARR11, ARR12, and ARR18) from the largest subfamily of type-B ARRs and also constructed various double and triple combinations of these mutations. Higher order mutants revealed progressively decreased sensitivity to cytokinin, including effects on root elongation, lateral root formation, callus induction and greening, and induction of cytokinin primary response genes. The triple mutant arr1,10,12 showed almost complete insensitivity to cytokinin under many of the assay conditions used. By contrast, no significant change in the sensitivity to ethylene was found among the mutants examined. These results indicate that there is functional overlap among the type-B ARRs and that they act as positive regulators of cytokinin signal transduction.

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