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Eur J Radiol. 2005 Aug;55(2):202-8.

Tuberculosis in children.

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Servi├žo de Imagiologia Geral, Hospital de Santa Maria. Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, Lisboa 1649-035, Portugal.


Epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in childhood is closely related to TB in adults. Serious manifestations are often observed in children with TB. Immunological immaturity and social dependence facilitate the spread of infection. Paediatricians account in practise both primary TB, with hilar lymphadenopathy, and subacute or chronic pulmonary complications, in TB disease. Children appear to have a higher risk of having extrapulmonary TB involving any organ. The diagnosis of tuberculosis reactivation/re-infection, is based in the isolation of the agent in the sputum . Primary TB is difficult to diagnose, usually established by indirect signs of low epidemiological specificity, symptoms, chest radiography and the intracutaneous tuberculin test. In this context, one can understand the importance of correct interpretation of the chest radiograph. Chest CT is recommended if the chest radiograph is equivocal. In addition, an overview of extrapulmonary cases of TB - of the spine, bone and lymph nodes - including the role of other imaging modalities (Us and MR) will be presented .

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