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Am Heart Hosp J. 2003 Fall;1(4):273-80.

Diabetes mellitus and heart failure.

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Section of Cardiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.


The metabolic abnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus result in macrovascular and microvascular complications in multiple organ systems; it is the cardiovascular impact that accounts for the greatest morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Heart failure, both with reduced and preserved systolic function, is a major complication, arising from the frequent associations with coronary atherosclerosis, hypertension, and a specific heart muscle dysfunction (cardiomyopathy) that occurs independently of coronary artery disease. Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension, together with activation of both the circulating and the tissue renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems, contribute to structural fibrosis and autonomic neuropathy. Thus, it becomes imperative to identify cardiac abnormalities early in the course of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes to allow early and aggressive intervention to control glucose and blood pressure and to normalize blood lipid profiles. Patients with diabetes should be treated to secondary prevention targets, including blood pressure less than 130/80 mm Hg and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level less than 100 mg/dL. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers,beta blockers, calcium channel-blockers, statins, and aspirin have all been demonstrated to significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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