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Nicotine Tob Res. 2005 Feb;7(1):81-90.

Development and validation of an adolescent smoking consequences questionnaire.

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  • 1Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.


Several researchers have investigated the role of outcome expectancies in the initiation and maintenance of smoking behavior. Empirical studies with adults, using a validated self-report instrument, have shown that smokers identify higher levels of positive smoking expectancies and lower levels of negative smoking expectancies compared with nonsmokers and ex-smokers. Studies examining smoking outcome expectancies among adolescents have yielded similar findings, but many of these studies did not use a self-report expectancy measure validated with teens. Therefore, the present study sought to modify a well-known adult smoking expectancy instrument, the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ), and to validate its factor structure with a community sample of adolescent nonsmokers and current smokers (aged 11-19 years). Results of a confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a seven-latent-factor structure modeled after the SCQ-Adult. As expected, smoking behavior and the intent to smoke in the future were associated with the endorsement of positive and negative smoking outcome expectancies. The psychometric data provide early support for the validity and reliability of this modified SCQ, renamed the Adolescent Smoking Consequences Questionnaire, for the assessment of smoking expectancies among smoking inexperienced and experienced teens.

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