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J Acoust Soc Am. 1992 Oct;92(4 Pt 1):1933-44.

External ear transfer function modeling: a beamforming approach.

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  • 1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison 53706.


In this article, a beamformer is proposed as a functional model for the spatial and temporal filtering characteristics of the external ear. The output of a beamformer is a weighted combination of the data received at an array of spatially distributed sensors. The beamformer weights and array geometry determine its spatial and temporal filtering characteristics. A procedure is described for choosing the weights to minimize the mean-squared error between the beamformer response and the measured response of the external ear. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by designing a beamformer of several hundred weights that duplicates and interpolates the measured external ear response of a cat over broad ranges of frequency and direction. A limited investigation of modeling performance as a function of array geometry is reported.

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