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EMBO J. 1992 Apr;11(4):1261-73.

Heterodimerization between light-regulated and ubiquitously expressed Arabidopsis GBF bZIP proteins.

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University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, Philadelphia 19104-6018.


The promoters of a variety of plant genes are characterized by the presence of a G-box (CCACGTGG) or closely related DNA motifs. These genes often exhibit quite diverse expression characteristics and in many cases the G-box sequence has been demonstrated to be essential for expression. The G-box of the Arabidopsis rbcS-1A gene is bound by a protein, GBF, identified in plant nuclear extracts. Here we report the isolation of three Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA clones encoding GBF proteins referred to as GBF1, GBF2 and GBF3. GBF1 and GBF2 mRNA is present in light and dark grown leaves as well as in roots. In contrast, GBF3 mRNA is found mainly in dark grown leaves and in roots. The deduced amino acid sequences of the three cDNAs indicate that each encodes a basic/leucine zipper protein. In addition, all three proteins are characterized by an N-terminal proline-rich domain. Homodimers of the three proteins specifically recognize the G-box motif, with GBF1 and GBF3 binding symmetrically to this palindromic sequence. In contrast, GBF2 binds to the symmetrical G-box sequence in such a way that the juxtaposition of the protein and the DNA element is clearly asymmetric and hence distinct from that observed for the other two proteins. The fact that GBF1, GBF2 and GBF3 possess both distinct DNA binding properties and expression characteristics prompt us to entertain the notion that these proteins may individually mediate distinct subclasses of expression properties assigned to the G-box. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GBF1, GBF2 and GBF3 heterodimerize and these heterodimers also interact with the G-box, suggesting a potential mechanism for generating additional diversity from these GBF proteins.

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