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Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003 Oct;285(4):H1753-8. Epub 2003 Jun 26.

Cardioprotection involves activation of NF-kappa B via PKC-dependent tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of I kappa B-alpha.

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Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Laboratories, University of California Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.


Previous studies indicated that activation of PKC and Src tyrosine kinases by ischemic preconditioning (PC) may participate in the activation of NF-kappa B. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying activation of NF-kappa B during ischemic PC remain unknown. In the hearts of conscious rabbits, it was found that ischemic PC (6 cycles of 4-min coronary occlusion and 4-min reperfusion) significantly induced both tyrosine (+226.9 +/- 42%) and serine (+137.0 +/- 36%) phosphorylation of the NF-kappa B inhibitory protein I kappa B-alpha, concomitant with increased activation of the I kappa B-alpha kinases IKK alpha (+255.0 +/- 46%) and IKK beta (+173.1 +/- 35%). Furthermore, both tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of I kappa B-alpha were blocked by pretreatment with either the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor lavendustin-A (LD-A) or the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine (Che) (both given at doses previously shown to block ischemic PC). Interestingly, Che completely abolished PC-induced activation of IKK alpha/beta, whereas LD-A had no effect. In addition, I kappa B-alpha protein level did not change during ischemic PC. Together, these data indicate that ischemic PC-induced activation of NF-kappa B occurs through both tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of I kappa B-alpha and is regulated by nonreceptor tyrosine kinases and PKC.

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