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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jul;87(7):3068-73.

Hydrochlorothiazide effectively reduces urinary calcium excretion in two Japanese patients with gain-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor gene.

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Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-0835, Japan.


Gain-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) gene cause autosomal dominant and/or sporadic hypocalcemia with hypercalciuria. Because treatment of the hypocalcemia with vitamin D and/or calcium in patients with such mutations results in increased hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal impairment, its use should be limited to alleviating the symptoms of symptomatic patients. Because thiazide diuretics have been successfully used to treat patients with hypercalciuria and hypoparathyroidism, they are theoretically useful in reducing urine calcium excretion and maintaining serum calcium levels in patients with gain-of-function mutations of the CaR gene. In this study, we report on the clinical course, molecular analysis, and effects of hydrochlorothiazide therapy in two Japanese patients with gain-of-function mutations of the CaR gene. Within a few weeks after birth, they developed generalized tonic seizures due to hypocalcemia (serum calcium values: 1.1 mmol/liter and 1.3 mmol/liter, respectively). Despite treatment with the standard dose of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in one patient and 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in the other, acceptable serum calcium levels near the lower limit of normal were not established, and their urinary calcium excretion inappropriately increased. Addition of hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg) reduced their urinary calcium excretion and maintained their serum calcium concentrations near the lower limit of normal, allowing the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(3) doses to be reduced, and it alleviated their symptoms. A heterozygous missense mutation was identified in both patients. In one patient, the mutation was A843E in the seventh transmembrane domain of the CaR, and in the other it was L125P in the N-terminal extracellular domain. In vitro transient transfection of their mutant CaR cDNAs into HEK293 cells shifted the concentration-response curve of Ca(2+) to the left. In conclusion, two sporadic cases of hypercalciuric hypocalcemia were due to de novo gain-of-function mutations of the CaR gene. Hydrochlorothiazide with vitamin D(3) successfully reduced the patients' urinary calcium excretion and controlled their serum calcium concentrations and symptoms. Thiazide diuretics are effective in patients with gain-of function mutations of the CaR gene.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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