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J Immunol. 2001 Dec 1;167(11):6669-77.

Augmentation versus inhibition: effects of conjunctional OX-40 receptor monoclonal antibody and IL-2 treatment on adoptive immunotherapy of advanced tumor.

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Center for Surgery Research and Lerner Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.


Therapeutic efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy of malignancies is proportional to the number of effector T cells transferred. Traditionally, exogenous IL-2 treatment has been used to promote the survival and function of transferred cells. Recently, we described the therapeutic effects of in vivo ligation of the costimulatory receptor, OX-40R, on activated T cells during early tumor growth. In this study, we examined the effects of IL-2 and OX-40R mAb on adoptive immunotherapy of advanced tumors. For treatment of 10-day 3-methylcholanthrene 205 pulmonary metastases, systemic transfer of 50 x 10(6) activated tumor-draining lymph node T cells resulted in >99% reduction of metastatic nodules. With either IL-2 or OX-40R mAb conjunctional treatment, only 20 x 10(6) cells were required. Advanced 10-day 3-methylcholanthrene 205 intracranial tumors could be cured by the transfer of 15 x 10(6) L-selectin(low) T cells derived from draining lymph nodes. In this situation, IL-2 administration inhibited therapeutic effects of the transferred cells. By contrast, 5 x 10(6) T cells were sufficient to cure all mice if OX-40R mAb was administrated. Studies on trafficking of systemically transferred T cells revealed that IL-2, but not OX-40R mAb, impeded tumor infiltration by T cells. Tumor regression required participation of both CD4 and CD8 T cells. Because only CD4 T cells expressed OX-40R at cell transfer, direct CD4 T cell activation is possible. Alternatively, OX-40R might be up-regulated on transferred T cells at the tumor site, rendering them reactive to the mAb. Our study suggests OX-40R mAb to be a reagent of choice to augment T cell adoptive immunotherapy in clinical trials.

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