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Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009 Dec;20(12):1314-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2009.01742.x. Epub 2009 Aug 4.

An in vitro study of non-axial forces upon the retention of an O-ring attachment.

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Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Dental School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.



The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retention force of an O-ring attachment system in different inclinations to the ideal path of insertion, using devices to compensate angulations.


Two implants were inserted into an aluminum base, and ball attachments were screwed to implants. Cylinders with O-rings were placed on ball attachments and connected to the test device using positioners to compensate implant angulations (0 degrees , 7 degrees , and 14 degrees ). Plexiglass bases were used to simulate implant angulations. The base and the test device were positioned in a testing apparatus, which simulated insertion/removal of an overdenture. A total of 2900 cycles, simulating 2 years of overdenture use, were performed and 36 O-rings were tested. The force required for each cycle was recorded with computer software. Longitudinal sections of ball attachment-positioner-cylinder with O-rings of each angulation were obtained to analyze the relationship among them, and O-ring sections tested in each angulation were compared with an unused counterpart. A mixed linear model was used to analyze the data, and the comparison was performed by orthogonal contrasts (alpha=0.05).


At 0 degrees , the retention force decreased significantly over time, and the retention force was significantly different in all comparisons, except from 12 to 18 months. When the implants were positioned at 7 degrees , the retention force was statistically different at 0 and 24 months. At 14 degrees , significant differences were found from 6 and 12 to 24 months.


Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that O-rings for implant/attachments perpendicular to the occlusal plane were adequately retentive over the first year and that the retentive capacity of O-ring was affected by implant inclinations despite the proposed positioners.

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