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Aviat Space Environ Med. 2001 Jun;72(6):522-8.

Plasma sodium-osmotic dissociation and hormonal interaction with drinking-induced hypervolemia at 2800 m altitude.

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Noll Physiological Research Center, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA.



To study hormonal factors that may account for the dissociation between beverage-induced plasma sodium p[Na+] and osmotic p[Osm] concentrations that appear to refute the high theoretical correlation between p[Na+] and p[Osm].


Ten men (24 +/- SD 3 yr of age) sat reclining (head up) for 12 h in a chamber (21-23 degrees C dry bulb, 25-33% relative humidity) at 2800 m (9184 ft, 539 mm Hg) altitude (ALT), and at 321 m (1053 ft, 732 mm Hg) on the ground (GND). During 1000-1030 hours they consumed 3 fluids (12 ml x kg(-1),X = 948 ml x d(-1)) with large differences in sodium and osmotic contents: AstroAde (AA) with 185 mEq x L(-1) Na+ and 283 mOsm x kg(-1), Performance 1 (Shaklee) (P1) with 22 mEq x L(-1) Na+ and 365 mOsm kg(-1), or H2O at ALT; and only H2O on the GND.


After drinking: plasma volume (PV) increased at 1200 hours by 8.3% (p < 0.05) with AA but was not significantly (NS) changed in the other sessions (Xdelta = +0.9%, range -0.9 to 2.8%); p[Na+] and p[Osm] were unchanged. Urinary rates and free-water clearances were attenuated with AA and P1 vs. those with H2O. Correlations between and among p[Na+] and p[Osm] suggest that the pNa+ ion is more tightly controlled than pOsm; and that there was no clear hormonal response that could account for this dissociation from theoretical considerations.


There is significant dissociation between plasma sodium and osmotic concentrations after fluid intake. Induction and maintenance of hypervolemia requires increased (near isotonic) drink Na+ osmols rather than increased non-ionic osmols.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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