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Acta Odontol Scand. 1999 Apr;57(2):77-82.

Neutrophil elastase activity, levels of prostaglandin E2, and matrix metalloproteinase-8 in refractory periodontitis sites in smokers and non-smokers.

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Department of Cariology, Faculty of Odontology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.


The study was aimed to determine elastase activity, levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in 20 smokers and 20 non-smokers, mean age 47.4 (+/-2.9 SD) years with refractory periodontal diseases. GCF was collected with intracrevicular washing from four sites in each subject. Clinical assessments, included gingival index, probing depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, bone height, and plaque accumulation. Smokers had a significantly higher percentage of the gingival margin covered by plaque (P%Im), higher number of sites with probing pocket depth > or = 5 mm, higher mean values of probing pocket depth and probing attachment level (P< 0.01). Smokers had significantly higher mean levels of neutrophil elastase activity (P< 0.01) in the supernatants than non-smokers did. In sites with matching pocket depths, neutrophil elastase activity was significantly higher in smokers (P< 0.001) than in non-smokers. In sites with high levels of MMP-8 the PGE2 levels were significantly (P< 0.001) higher compared to sites with low levels in smokers as well as in non-smokers. A significant correlation was found between probing pocket depth and levels of MMP-8 (P< 0.001) and in non-smokers between probing pocket depth and levels of PGE2 (P< 0.05).

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