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Elife. 2018 May 1;7. pii: e35657. doi: 10.7554/eLife.35657.

Differential inputs to striatal cholinergic and parvalbumin interneurons imply functional distinctions.

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1
Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, United States.

Abstract

Striatal cholinergic (ChAT) and parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exert powerful influences on striatal function in health and disease, yet little is known about the organization of their inputs. Here using rabies tracing, electrophysiology and genetic tools, we compare the whole-brain inputs to these two types of striatal interneurons and dissect their functional connectivity in mice. ChAT interneurons receive a substantial cortical input from associative regions of cortex, such as the orbitofrontal cortex. Amongst subcortical inputs, a previously unknown inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus input to striatal PV interneurons is identified. Additionally, the external segment of the globus pallidus targets striatal ChAT interneurons, which is sufficient to inhibit tonic ChAT interneuron firing. Finally, we describe a novel excitatory pathway from the pedunculopontine nucleus that innervates ChAT interneurons. These results establish the brain-wide direct inputs of two major types of striatal interneurons and allude to distinct roles in regulating striatal activity and controlling behavior.

KEYWORDS:

ChAT; interneuron; mouse; neuroscience; optogenetics; parvalbumin; rabies; striatum

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