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Viruses. 2018 Feb 13;10(2). pii: E82. doi: 10.3390/v10020082.

DNA Tumor Virus Regulation of Host DNA Methylation and Its Implications for Immune Evasion and Oncogenesis.

Author information

1
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Sharon.Duerkop@ucdenver.edu.
2
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. joseph.westrich@ucdenver.edu.
3
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Dohun.Pyeon@ucdenver.edu.
4
Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Dohun.Pyeon@ucdenver.edu.

Abstract

Viruses have evolved various mechanisms to evade host immunity and ensure efficient viral replication and persistence. Several DNA tumor viruses modulate host DNA methyltransferases for epigenetic dysregulation of immune-related gene expression in host cells. The host immune responses suppressed by virus-induced aberrant DNA methylation are also frequently involved in antitumor immune responses. Here, we describe viral mechanisms and virus-host interactions by which DNA tumor viruses regulate host DNA methylation to evade antiviral immunity, which may contribute to the generation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment during cancer development. Recent trials of immunotherapies have shown promising results to treat multiple cancers; however, a significant number of non-responders necessitate identifying additional targets for cancer immunotherapies. Thus, understanding immune evasion mechanisms of cancer-causing viruses may provide great insights for reversing immune suppression to prevent and treat associated cancers.

KEYWORDS:

DNA methylation; DNMT; EBV; HBV; HPV; KSHV; antiviral immunity; herpesvirus; immune evasion; papillomavirus

PMID:
29438328
PMCID:
PMC5850389
DOI:
10.3390/v10020082
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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