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Nutrients. 2019 Feb 26;11(3). pii: E489. doi: 10.3390/nu11030489.

Short-Term Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet in Healthy Young Males Renders the Endothelium Susceptible to Hyperglycemia-Induced Damage, An Exploratory Analysis.

Author information

1
School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada. cdurrer@live.com.
2
School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada. nialewis_26@hotmail.co.uk.
3
School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada. zhxwan@suda.edu.cn.
4
School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada. philip.ainslie@ubc.ca.
5
Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. jenkinsn@uga.edu.
6
School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada. jonathan.little@ubc.ca.

Abstract

Postprandial hyperglycemia has been linked to elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction and/or damage may be one of the mechanisms through which this occurs. In this exploratory study, we determined whether acute glucose ingestion would increase markers of endothelial damage/activation and impair endothelial function before and after a short-term low-carbohydrate high-fat diet (HFD) designed to induce relative glucose intolerance. Nine healthy young males (body mass index 23.2 ± 2 kg/m²) consumed a 75 g glucose drink before and <24 hours after consuming seven days of an iso-energetic HFD consisting of ~70% energy from fat, ~10% energy from carbohydrates, and ~20% energy from protein. CD31+/CD42b- and CD62E+ endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were enumerated at fasting, 1 hour (1 h), and 2 hours (2 h) post-consumption of the glucose drink. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), arterial stiffness, and diameter, velocity, and flow of the common and internal carotid, and vertebral arteries were assessed in the fasting state and 1 h post glucose consumption. After the HFD, CD31+/CD42b- EMPs were elevated at 1 h compared to 2 h (p = 0.037), with a tendency for an increase above fasting (p = 0.06) only post-HFD. CD62E EMPs followed the same pattern with increased concentration at 1 h compared to 2 h (p = 0.005) post-HFD, with a tendency to be increased above fasting levels (p = 0.078). FMD was reduced at 1 h post glucose consumption both pre- (p = 0.01) and post-HFD (p = 0.005). There was also a reduction in FMD in the fasting state following the HFD (p = 0.02). In conclusion, one week of low-carbohydrate high-fat feeding that leads to a relative impairment in glucose homeostasis in healthy young adults may predispose the endothelium to hyperglycemia-induced damage.

KEYWORDS:

EMPs; FMD; flow-mediated dilation; high-fat diet; microparticles

PMID:
30813579
DOI:
10.3390/nu11030489
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