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J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2019 Apr 16:1-8. doi: 10.3171/2018.11.PEDS18626. [Epub ahead of print]

Clinical predictors of symptom resolution for children and adolescents with sport-related concussion.

Author information

1
1Sports Medicine Center and.
2
2Department of Orthopedics and.
3
3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.
4
4Rehabilitation Medicine, Children's Hospital Colorado; and.

Abstract

OBJECTIVEThe goal of this study was to determine which variables assessed during an initial clinical evaluation for concussion are independently associated with time until symptom resolution among pediatric patients.METHODSData collected from a prospective clinical registry of pediatric patients with concussion were analyzed. The primary outcome variable was time from injury until symptom resolution. Predictor variables assessed within 10 days after injury included preinjury factors, Health and Behavior Inventory scores, headache severity, and balance, vestibular, and oculomotor test performances. The researchers used univariate Cox proportional models to identify potential predictors of symptom resolution time and constructed a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model in which total duration of concussion symptoms remained the outcome variable.RESULTSThe sample consisted of 351 patients (33% female, mean age 14.6 ± 2.2 years, evaluated 5.6 ± 2.6 days after concussion). Univariate Cox proportional hazards models indicated that several variables were associated with a longer duration of symptoms, including headache severity (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90 [95% CI 0.85-0.96]), headache frequency (HR 0.83 [95% CI 0.71-0.96]), confusion (HR 0.79 [95% CI 0.69-0.92]), forgetfulness (HR 0.79 [95% CI 0.68-0.92]), attention difficulties (HR 0.83 [95% CI 0.72-0.96]), trouble remembering (HR 0.84 [95% CI 0.72-0.98]), getting tired often (HR 0.86 [95% CI 0.76-0.97]), getting tired easily (HR 0.86 [95% CI 0.76-0.98]), dizziness (HR 0.86 [95% CI 0.75-0.99]), and abnormal performance on the Romberg test (HR 0.59 [95% CI 0.40-0.85]). A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model indicated that an abnormal performance on the Romberg test was independently associated with a longer duration of symptoms (HR 0.65 [95% CI 0.44-0.98]; p = 0.038).CONCLUSIONSFor children and adolescents evaluated within 10 days after receiving a concussion, abnormal performance on the Romberg test was independently associated with a longer duration of symptoms during recovery. In line with findings of other recent studies investigating predictors of symptom resolution, postural stability tests may provide useful prognostic information for sports medicine clinicians.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD = attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; BESS = Balance Error Scoring System; ED = emergency department; HBI = Health and Behavior Inventory; NPC = near point of convergence; Romberg test; VIF = variance inflation factor; mTBI = mild traumatic brain injury; mild traumatic brain injury; pediatric concussion; postural balance; recovery; trauma

PMID:
30994475
DOI:
10.3171/2018.11.PEDS18626

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