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PLoS One. 2018 Mar 14;13(3):e0193087. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193087. eCollection 2018.

Validation of an effective, low cost, Free/open access 3D-printed stethoscope.

Author information

1
Faculty of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
2
No institutional affiliation (Independent contractors), Cologne, Germany.
3
Glia, Inc., London, Canada.
4
Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
5
Division of Emergency Medicine, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada.
6
Division of Emergency Medicine, Al-Shifa Hospital, Gaza City, Occupied Palestinian Territories.

Abstract

The modern acoustic stethoscope is a useful clinical tool used to detect subtle, pathological changes in cardiac, pulmonary and vascular sounds. Currently, brand-name stethoscopes are expensive despite limited innovations in design or fabrication in recent decades. Consequently, the high cost of high quality, brand name models serves as a barrier to clinicians practicing in various settings, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In this publication, we describe the design and validation of a low-cost open-access (Free/Libre) 3D-printed stethoscope which is comparable to the Littmann Cardiology III for use in low-access clinics.

PMID:
29538426
PMCID:
PMC5851543
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0193087
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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