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Cancer Commun (Lond). 2019 Nov 26;39(1):79. doi: 10.1186/s40880-019-0427-z.

The immune landscape of esophageal cancer.

Author information

1
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Regional Immunity and Diseases, Department of Pathology and Shenzhen International Cancer Center, Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, 518060, Guangdong, P. R. China.
2
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Regional Immunity and Diseases, Department of Pathology and Shenzhen International Cancer Center, Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, 518060, Guangdong, P. R. China. gracelfu@szu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Esophageal cancer (EC) seriously threatens human health, and a promising new avenue for EC treatment involves cancer immunotherapy. To improve the efficacy of EC immunotherapy and to develop novel strategies for EC prognosis prediction or clinical treatment, understanding the immune landscapes in EC is required. EC cells harbor abundant tumor antigens, including tumor-associated antigens and neoantigens, which have the ability to initiate dendritic cell-mediated tumor-killing cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the early stage of cancer development. As EC cells battle the immune system, they obtain an ability to suppress antitumor immunity through immune checkpoints, secreted factors, and negative regulatory immune cells. Cancer-associated fibroblasts also contribute to the immune evasion of EC cells. Some factors of the immune landscape in EC tumor microenvironment are associated with cancer development, patient survival, or treatment response. Based on the immune landscape, peptide vaccines, adoptive T cell therapy, and immune checkpoint blockade can be used for EC immunotherapy. Combined strategies are required for better clinical outcome in EC. This review provides directions to design novel and effective strategies for prognosis prediction and immunotherapy in EC.

KEYWORDS:

Esophageal cancer; Immune landscape; Immunotherapy; Prognosis

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