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Radiology. 2018 May;287(2):452-460. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2017171850. Epub 2017 Nov 30.

Changes in Signal Intensity of the Dentate Nucleus and Globus Pallidus in Pediatric Patients: Impact of Brain Irradiation and Presence of Primary Brain Tumors Independent of Linear Gadolinium-based Contrast Agent Administration.

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From the Departments of Radiology (B.T., B.N., C.S.J.L., C.G.A., M.D.N.) and Hematology (M.B.N., G.D.), Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA 90027.


Purpose To determine whether whole-brain irradiation, chemotherapy, and primary brain pathologic conditions affect magnetic resonance (MR) imaging signal changes in pediatric patients independent of the administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study included 144 pediatric patients who underwent intravenous GBCA-enhanced MR imaging examinations (55 patients with primary brain tumors and whole-brain irradiation, 19 with primary brain tumors and chemotherapy only, 52 with primary brain tumors without any treatment, and 18 with neuroblastoma without brain metastatic disease). The signal intensities (SIs) in the globus pallidus (GP), thalamus (T), dentate nucleus (DN), and pons (P) were measured on unenhanced T1-weighted images. GP:T and DN:P SI ratios were compared between groups by using the analysis of variance and were analyzed relative to group, total cumulative number of doses of GBCA, age, and sex by using multivariable linear models. Results DN:P ratio for the radiation therapy group was greater than that for the other groups except for the group of brain tumors treated with chemotherapy (P < .05). The number of GBCA doses was correlated with the DN:P ratio for the nontreated brain tumor group (P < .0001). The radiation therapy-treated brain tumor group demonstrated higher DN:P ratios than the nontreated brain tumor group for number of doses less than or equal to 10 (P < .0001), whereas ratios in the nontreated brain tumor group were higher than those in the radiation therapy-treated brain tumor group for doses greater than 20 (P = .05). The GP:T ratios for the brain tumor groups were greater than that for the neuroblastoma group (P = .01). Conclusion Changes in SI of the DN and GP that are independent of the administration of GBCA occur in patients with brain tumors undergoing brain irradiation, as well as in patients with untreated primary brain tumors. © RSNA, 2017.

[Available on 2019-05-01]
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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