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BMJ Open. 2018 Apr 23;8(3):e018895. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018895.

Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and childhood growth and overweight: results from a large Norwegian prospective observational cohort study.

Author information

1
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Exposure and Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
2
Early Determinants of the Child's Health and Development Team (ORCHAD), INSERM, UMR1153 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Sorbonne Paris Cité Center (CRESS), Paris, France.
3
Faculty of Pharmacy, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Châtenay-Malabry, France.
4
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
6
Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
7
Division of Health Data and Digitalization, Department of Genetics and Bioinformatics, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
8
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To study the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and the child's weight gain and overweight risk up to 8 years.

DESIGN:

Prospective nationwide pregnancy cohort.

SETTING:

The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

PARTICIPANTS:

A total of 50 943 mothers recruited from 2002 to 2008 and their children, after singleton pregnancies, with information about average caffeine intake assessed at mid-pregnancy.

OUTCOME MEASURE:

Child's body size information at 11 age points from 6 weeks to 8 years. We defined excess growth in infancy as a WHO weight gain z-score of >0.67 from birth to age 1 year, and overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force. We used a growth model to assess individual growth trajectories.

RESULTS:

Compared with pregnant women with low caffeine intake (<50 mg/day, 46%), women with average (50-199 mg/day, 44%), high (≥200-299 mg/day, 7%) and very high (≥300 mg/day, 3%) caffeine intakes had an increased risk of their child experiencing excess growth in infancy, after adjustment for confounders (OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.22, OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.45, OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.93, respectively). In utero exposure to any caffeine was associated with higher risk of overweight at age 3 years and 5 years, while the association persisted at 8 years, only for very high exposures. Any caffeine intake was associated with increased body mass index from infancy to childhood. Children prenatally exposed to caffeine intake >200 mg/day had consistently higher weight. Very high caffeine exposures were associated with higher weight gain velocity from infancy to age 8 years.

CONCLUSION:

Any caffeine consumption during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of excess infant growth and of childhood overweight, mainly at preschool ages. Maternal caffeine intake may modify the overall weight growth trajectory of the child from birth to 8 years. This study adds supporting evidence for the current advice to reduce caffeine intake during pregnancy.

KEYWORDS:

epidemiology; preventive medicine; public health; social medicine

PMID:
29685923
PMCID:
PMC5914784
DOI:
10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018895
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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