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Arch Dis Child. 2019 Jun;104(6):541-546. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2018-315870. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Confused health and nutrition claims in food marketing to children could adversely affect food choice and increase risk of obesity.

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Human Nutrition, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.



To investigate the nutritional quality of foods marketed to children in the UK and to explore the use of health and nutrition claims.


This cross-sectional study was carried out in a wide range of UK food retailers. Products marketed to children above the age of 1 year containing any of a range of child friendly themes (i.e. cartoons, toys and promotions), and terms suggesting a nutritious or healthy attribute such as 'one of 5-a-day', on product packaging were identified both in stores and online. Information on sugar, salt and fat content, as well as health and nutrition claims, was recorded. The Ofcom nutrient profiling model (NPM) was used to assess if products were healthy.


Three hundred and thirty-two products, including breakfast cereals, fruit snacks, fruit-based drinks, dairy products and ready meals, were sampled. The use of cartoon characters (91.6%), nutrition claims (41.6%) and health claims (19.6%) was a common marketing technique. The one of 5-a-day claim was also common (41.6%), but 75.4% (103) of products which made this claim were made up of less than 80 g of fruit and vegetables. Sugar content (mean±SD per 100 g) was high in fruit snacks (48.4±16.2 g), cereal bars (28.9±7.5 g) and cereals (22.9±8.0 g). Overall, 41.0% of the products were classified as less healthy according to the Ofcom NPM.


A large proportion of products marketed to children through product packaging are less healthy, and claims used on product packaging are confusing. Uniform guidance would avoid confusion on nutritional quality of many popular foods.


child health; diet; food labelling; fruit and vegetable; sugar

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: None declared.

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