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Hum Reprod. 2016 Jun;31(6):1363-74. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dew073. Epub 2016 Apr 19.

Prevalence of KISS1 Receptor mutations in a series of 603 patients with normosmic congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and characterization of novel mutations: a single-centre study.

Author information

1
Univ Paris-Sud, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France INSERM Unité Mixte de Recherche 1185, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre F-94276, France Service de Génétique Moléculaire, Pharmacogénétique, et Hormonologie, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France.
2
INSERM Unité Mixte de Recherche 1185, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre F-94276, France.
3
Univ Paris-Sud, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France INSERM Unité Mixte de Recherche 1185, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre F-94276, France.
4
Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction and Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la Croissance, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France.
5
Univ Paris-Sud, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France Service d'Endocrinologie Pédiatrique and Centre de Référence des Maladies du Développement Sexuel, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France.
6
Service d'Endocrinologie Hôpital de la Conception, Marseille, France.
7
Département d'Endocrinologie, Métabolisme et Nutrition, Université catholique de Louvain, cliniques universitaires, Saint-Luc, Belgium.
8
Univ Paris-Sud, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France INSERM Unité Mixte de Recherche 1185, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre F-94276, France Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction and Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la Croissance, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France.
9
Univ Paris-Sud, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France INSERM Unité Mixte de Recherche 1185, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre F-94276, France Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction and Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la Croissance, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France jacques.young@aphp.fr.

Abstract

STUDY QUESTION:

What is the exact prevalence of Kisspeptin Receptor (KISS1R) mutations in the population of patients with normosmic congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (nCHH) by comparison with other genes, involved in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release or action?

SUMMARY ANSWER:

KISS1R mutants are responsible for the nCHH phenotype in only a small minority of cases and were less prevalent than GnRH Receptor (GNRHR) mutations.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:

The respective prevalence of each of the genetic causes of nCHH is unclear. Large series of patients are very rare and suffer from heterogeneity of the population of CHH studied.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION:

Patients with nCHH were consecutively enrolled in a single French referral centre and were gradually tested for KISS1R between January 2006 and April 2015.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS:

A total of 603 patients with nCHH (399 men and 204 women) were diagnosed at the Bicêtre Hospital and underwent KISS1R analysis. The GNRHR, tachykinin receptor 3 (TACR3), gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1), tachykinin 3 (TAC3) and KISS1 genes were also sequenced. Functional characterization of KISS1R mutations included a study of signal transduction using a reporter gene (serum response element-luciferase (SRE-Luc) involved in the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway.

MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE:

We detected 15 KISS1R variants (10 novel), in 12 of the 603 patients (2.0%, 95% CI [0.9-3.1]. KISS1R mutations were less prevalent than GNRHR (4.7%) and TACR3 (2.6%) mutations but more prevalent than GNRH1 (1.5%), TAC3 (1.0%) and KISS1 (0%) mutations. KISS1R mutants were present in the biallelic state in 8 of the 12 patients concerned. Among 5 men with biallelic KISS1R mutations, 4 had either micropenis or cryptorchidism. In vitro analysis of the 5 new variants present in the biallelic state (C95W, Y103*, C115W, P176R and A287E) showed a loss of function.

LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION:

The prevalence of TACR3, GNRH1, TAC3 and KISS1 mutations was calculated from a smaller number of nCHH patients than KISS1R and GNRHR. This should prompt caution concerning the reported prevalence of mutations in these four genes.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:

We show that KISS1R mutants are responsible for the nCHH phenotype in only a small minority of cases. Together, the genes analysed here were mutated in fewer than 15% of patients, suggesting a role of other genes in nCHH. The presence of cryptorchidism and/or micropenis in the majority of men with biallelic KISS1R mutations strongly suggests that this gene is essential for prenatal GnRH secretion.

STUDY FUNDING, COMPETING INTERESTS:

This work was supported in part by grants from Paris-Sud University (Bonus Qualité Recherche, and Attractivité grants) to J.B., French Ministry of Health, Hospital Clinical Research Program on Rare Diseases. Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique (PHRC # P081212 HYPOPROTEO) to J.Y. C.P. was supported by student fellowships 'Année Recherche' from Agence Régionale de Santé Provence Alpes Côtes d'Azur. The authors have nothing to disclose.

KEYWORDS:

GNRHR/GNRH1; GPR54; Kallmann; TAC3/TACR3; delayed puberty; neurokinin B

PMID:
27094476
DOI:
10.1093/humrep/dew073
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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