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J Extracell Vesicles. 2018 Nov 23;7(1):1535750. doi: 10.1080/20013078.2018.1535750. eCollection 2018.

Minimal information for studies of extracellular vesicles 2018 (MISEV2018): a position statement of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles and update of the MISEV2014 guidelines.

Théry C1, Witwer KW2,3, Aikawa E4,5, Alcaraz MJ6, Anderson JD7, Andriantsitohaina R8, Antoniou A9,10, Arab T11, Archer F12, Atkin-Smith GK13, Ayre DC14,15, Bach JM16, Bachurski D17, Baharvand H18,19, Balaj L20, Baldacchino S21, Bauer NN22, Baxter AA13, Bebawy M23, Beckham C24, Bedina Zavec A25, Benmoussa A26, Berardi AC27, Bergese P28,29,30, Bielska E31, Blenkiron C32, Bobis-Wozowicz S33, Boilard E26, Boireau W34, Bongiovanni A35, Borràs FE36,37,38, Bosch S16, Boulanger CM39,40, Breakefield X41, Breglio AM42,43, Brennan MÁ44,45,46, Brigstock DR47,48, Brisson A49, Broekman ML50,51,52, Bromberg JF53,54, Bryl-Górecka P55, Buch S56, Buck AH57, Burger D58,59,60, Busatto S61,30, Buschmann D62, Bussolati B63, Buzás EI64,65, Byrd JB66, Camussi G67, Carter DR68, Caruso S13, Chamley LW69, Chang YT70, Chen C71,72, Chen S73, Cheng L13, Chin AR74, Clayton A75, Clerici SP76, Cocks A75, Cocucci E77,78, Coffey RJ79, Cordeiro-da-Silva A80, Couch Y81, Coumans FA82, Coyle B83, Crescitelli R84, Criado MF85, D'Souza-Schorey C86, Das S87, Datta Chaudhuri A3, de Candia P88, De Santana EF89, De Wever O90,91, Del Portillo HA92,93,94, Demaret T95, Deville S96,97, Devitt A98, Dhondt B90,99,91, Di Vizio D74, Dieterich LC100, Dolo V101, Dominguez Rubio AP102, Dominici M103,104, Dourado MR105,106, Driedonks TA107, Duarte FV108, Duncan HM109,110, Eichenberger RM111, Ekström K112, El Andaloussi S113,114, Elie-Caille C34, Erdbrügger U115, Falcón-Pérez JM116,117, Fatima F118, Fish JE119,120, Flores-Bellver M121, Försönits A65, Frelet-Barrand A34, Fricke F122,123, Fuhrmann G124,125,126, Gabrielsson S127, Gámez-Valero A36,128, Gardiner C129, Gärtner K130, Gaudin R131,132, Gho YS133, Giebel B134, Gilbert C26, Gimona M135, Giusti I101, Goberdhan DC136, Görgens A113,137,134, Gorski SM138,139, Greening DW13, Gross JC140,141, Gualerzi A142, Gupta GN143, Gustafson D120, Handberg A144,145, Haraszti RA146, Harrison P147, Hegyesi H65, Hendrix A90,91, Hill AF13, Hochberg FH148,149, Hoffmann KF150, Holder B151,152, Holthofer H153, Hosseinkhani B154, Hu G56, Huang Y155,2, Huber V156, Hunt S157, Ibrahim AG158, Ikezu T159, Inal JM160, Isin M161, Ivanova A162, Jackson HK83, Jacobsen S163,164, Jay SM165, Jayachandran M166, Jenster G167, Jiang L13, Johnson SM168, Jones JC169, Jong A170,171, Jovanovic-Talisman T172, Jung S173, Kalluri R174, Kano SI175, Kaur S176, Kawamura Y177,178, Keller ET179,180, Khamari D65, Khomyakova E181,182, Khvorova A146, Kierulf P183, Kim KP184, Kislinger T185,186, Klingeborn M187, Klinke DJ 2nd188,189, Kornek M190,191, Kosanović MM192, Kovács ÁF65, Krämer-Albers EM193, Krasemann S194, Krause M195, Kurochkin IV196, Kusuma GD195,197, Kuypers S198, Laitinen S199, Langevin SM200,201, Languino LR202, Lannigan J203, Lässer C84, Laurent LC204, Lavieu G1, Lázaro-Ibáñez E205, Le Lay S8, Lee MS206, Lee YXF207, Lemos DS208, Lenassi M209, Leszczynska A210, Li IT211, Liao K56, Libregts SF212, Ligeti E213, Lim R195,197, Lim SK214, Linē A215, Linnemannstöns K140,141, Llorente A216, Lombard CA95, Lorenowicz MJ217, Lörincz ÁM213, Lötvall J84, Lovett J218, Lowry MC219, Loyer X39,40, Lu Q220, Lukomska B221, Lunavat TR222, Maas SL223,224, Malhi H225, Marcilla A226,227, Mariani J228, Mariscal J74, Martens-Uzunova ES167, Martin-Jaular L1, Martinez MC8, Martins VR229, Mathieu M1, Mathivanan S13, Maugeri M230, McGinnis LK231, McVey MJ232,233, Meckes DG Jr234, Meehan KL235, Mertens I236,97, Minciacchi VR237, Möller A238, Møller Jørgensen M239,240, Morales-Kastresana A169, Morhayim J241, Mullier F242,243, Muraca M244, Musante L115, Mussack V62, Muth DC2, Myburgh KH218, Najrana T245, Nawaz M230, Nazarenko I246,247, Nejsum P248, Neri C249, Neri T250, Nieuwland R82, Nimrichter L251, Nolan JP148, Nolte-'t Hoen EN107, Noren Hooten N252, O'Driscoll L219, O'Grady T253, O'Loghlen A254, Ochiya T255, Olivier M256, Ortiz A257,258,259, Ortiz LA260, Osteikoetxea X261, Østergaard O262,263, Ostrowski M264, Park J133, Pegtel DM265, Peinado H266, Perut F267, Pfaffl MW62, Phinney DG268, Pieters BC269, Pink RC68, Pisetsky DS270,271, Pogge von Strandmann E272, Polakovicova I273,274, Poon IK13, Powell BH2, Prada I275, Pulliam L276,277, Quesenberry P278, Radeghieri A28,30, Raffai RL279,276, Raimondo S280, Rak J281,256, Ramirez MI282,283, Raposo G284, Rayyan MS285, Regev-Rudzki N286, Ricklefs FL287, Robbins PD288, Roberts DD176, Rodrigues SC289,108, Rohde E290,135,291, Rome S292, Rouschop KM293, Rughetti A294, Russell AE295, Saá P296, Sahoo S297, Salas-Huenuleo E298,299, Sánchez C300, Saugstad JA301, Saul MJ302, Schiffelers RM303, Schneider R120,304, Schøyen TH2, Scott A305, Shahaj E156, Sharma S306,307,308, Shatnyeva O205, Shekari F18, Shelke GV309,84, Shetty AK310,311, Shiba K312, Siljander PR313,314, Silva AM315,316,317, Skowronek A318, Snyder OL 2nd319, Soares RP320, Sódar BW65, Soekmadji C238,321, Sotillo J111, Stahl PD322, Stoorvogel W107, Stott SL323,324, Strasser EF325, Swift S326, Tahara H327, Tewari M179,328,329, Timms K330, Tiwari S331,332, Tixeira R13, Tkach M1, Toh WS333, Tomasini R334, Torrecilhas AC335, Tosar JP336,337, Toxavidis V338, Urbanelli L339, Vader P303, van Balkom BW340, van der Grein SG107, Van Deun J90,91, van Herwijnen MJ107, Van Keuren-Jensen K341, van Niel G342, van Royen ME343, van Wijnen AJ344, Vasconcelos MH345,346,316, Vechetti IJ Jr347, Veit TD348, Vella LJ349,350, Velot É351, Verweij FJ342, Vestad B352,353,354, Viñas JL58,59,60, Visnovitz T65, Vukman KV65, Wahlgren J355, Watson DC356,357, Wauben MH107, Weaver A358, Webber JP75, Weber V359, Wehman AM360, Weiss DJ361, Welsh JA169, Wendt S362, Wheelock AM363, Wiener Z65, Witte L140,141, Wolfram J364,365,366, Xagorari A367, Xander P368, Xu J138,139, Yan X369, Yáñez-Mó M370,371, Yin H372, Yuana Y373, Zappulli V374, Zarubova J375,376,377, Žėkas V378, Zhang JY379, Zhao Z2, Zheng L155, Zheutlin AR285, Zickler AM380, Zimmermann P381,382, Zivkovic AM383, Zocco D384, Zuba-Surma EK33.

Author information

1
Institut Curie, INSERM U932, PSL Research University, Paris, France.
2
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, Baltimore, MD, USA.
3
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD, USA.
4
Brigham and Women's Hospital, Center for Interdisciplinary Cardiovascular Sciences, Boston, MA, USA.
5
Harvard Medical School, Cardiovascular Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
6
Interuniversity Research Institute for Molecular Recognition and Technological Development (IDM), University of Valencia, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
7
University of California, Davis, Department of Otolaryngology, Davis, CA, USA.
8
INSERM U1063, Université d'Angers, CHU d'Angers, Angers, France.
9
German Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany.
10
University Hospital Bonn (UKB), Bonn, Germany.
11
Université de Lille, INSERM, U-1192, Laboratoire Protéomique, Réponse Inflammatoire et Spectrométrie de Masse - PRISM, Lille, France.
12
University of Lyon, INRA, EPHE, UMR754 Viral Infections and Comparative Pathology, Lyon, France.
13
La Trobe University, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Bundoora, Australia.
14
Atlantic Cancer Research Institute, Moncton, Canada.
15
Mount Allison University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Sackville, Canada.
16
Université Bretagne Loire, Oniris, INRA, IECM, Nantes, France.
17
University of Cologne, Department of Internal Medicine I, Cologne, Germany.
18
Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Cell Science Research Center, Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Tehran, Iran.
19
University of Science and Culture, ACECR, Department of Developmental Biology, Tehran, Iran.
20
Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Boston, MA, USA.
21
University of Malta, Department of Pathology, Msida, Malta.
22
University of South Alabama, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Lung Biology, Mobile, AL, USA.
23
University of Technology Sydney, Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, Sydney, Australia.
24
University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.
25
National Institute of Chemistry, Department of Molecular Biology and Nanobiotechnology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
26
Université Laval, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Quebec City, Canada.
27
Ospedale Santo Spirito, Pescara, Italy.
28
CSGI - Research Center for Colloids and Nanoscience, Florence, Italy.
29
INSTM - National Interuniversity Consortium of Materials Science and Technology, Florence, Italy.
30
University of Brescia, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Brescia, Italy.
31
University of Birmingham, Institute of Microbiology and Infection, Birmingham, UK.
32
University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
33
Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Department of Cell Biology, Kraków, Poland.
34
FEMTO-ST Institute, UBFC, CNRS, ENSMM, UTBM, Besançon, France.
35
Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology (IBIM), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy, Palermo, Italy.
36
Germans Trias i Pujol Research Institute (IGTP), Can Ruti Campus, REMAR-IVECAT Group, Badalona, Spain.
37
Germans Trias i Pujol University Hospital, Nephrology Service, Badalona, Spain.
38
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Department of Cell Biology, Physiology & Immunology, Barcelona, Spain.
39
INSERM UMR-S 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, Paris, France.
40
Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
41
Massachusetts General Hospital and Neuroscience Program, Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurology and Radiology, Boston, MA, USA.
42
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY, USA.
43
National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, MD, USA.
44
Harvard University, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA, USA.
45
Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA, USA.
46
Université de Nantes, INSERM UMR 1238, Bone Sarcoma and Remodeling of Calcified Tissues, PhyOS, Nantes, France.
47
Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA.
48
The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
49
UMR-CBMN, CNRS-Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
50
Haaglanden Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, The Hague, The Netherlands.
51
Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Leiden, The Netherlands.
52
Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA, USA.
53
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, New York City, NY, USA.
54
Weill Cornell Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York City, NY, USA.
55
Lund University, Department of Cardiology, Lund, Sweden.
56
University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, Omaha, NE, USA.
57
University of Edinburgh, Institute of Immunology & Infection Research, Edinburgh, UK.
58
Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada.
59
Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada.
60
University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
61
Mayo Clinic, Department of Transplantation, Jacksonville, FL, USA.
62
Technical University of Munich, TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Division of Animal Physiology and Immunology, Freising, Germany.
63
University of Torino, Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, Torino, Italy.
64
MTA-SE Immuno-Proteogenomics Research Groups, Budapest, Hungary.
65
Semmelweis University, Department of Genetics, Cell- and Immunobiology, Budapest, Hungary.
66
University of Michigan, Department of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
67
University of Torino, Department of Medical Sciences, Torino, Italy.
68
Oxford Brookes University, Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Oxford, UK.
69
University of Auckland, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Auckland, New Zealand.
70
National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
71
National Tsing Hua University, Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
72
National Tsing Hua University, Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
73
Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Institute of Reproductive Biology, Dummerstorf, Germany.
74
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
75
Cardiff University, School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK.
76
UNICAMP, Institute of Biology, Campinas, Brazil.
77
The Ohio State University, College of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Columbus, OH, USA.
78
The Ohio State University, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USA.
79
Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Epithelial Biology Center, Department of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.
80
University of Porto, Faculty of Pharmacy (FFUP), IBMC/I3S, Porto, Portugal.
81
University of Oxford, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, Acute Stroke Programme - Investigative Medicine, Oxford, UK.
82
Academic Medical Centre of the University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Vesicle Observation Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
83
The University of Nottingham, School of Medicine, Children's Brain Tumour Research Centre, Nottingham, UK.
84
University of Gothenburg, Institute of Medicine at Sahlgrenska Academy, Krefting Research Centre, Gothenburg, Sweden.
85
University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.
86
University of Notre Dame, Department of Biological Sciences, Notre Dame, IN, USA.
87
Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
88
IRCCS MultiMedica, Milan, Italy.
89
The Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil.
90
Cancer Research Institute Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
91
Ghent University, Department of Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent, Belgium.
92
Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain.
93
Institut d'Investigació Germans Trias i Pujol (IGTP), PVREX group, Badalona, Spain.
94
ISGlobal, Hospital Clínic - Universitat de Barcelona, PVREX Group, Barcelona, Spain.
95
Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique (IREC), Laboratory of Pediatric Hepatology and Cell Therapy, Brussels, Belgium.
96
Universiteit Hasselt, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
97
Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO), Mol, Belgium.
98
Aston University, School of Life & Health Sciences, Birmingham, UK.
99
Ghent University Hospital, Department of Urology, Ghent, Belgium.
100
ETH Zurich, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich, Switzerland.
101
University of L'Aquila, Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, L'Aquila, Italy.
102
Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de Química Biológica, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
103
TPM of Mirandola, Mirandola, Italy.
104
University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Division of Oncology, Modena, Italy.
105
University of Campinas, Piracicaba Dental School, Department of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba, Brazil.
106
University of Oulu, Faculty of Medicine, Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, Oulu, Finland.
107
Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
108
Exogenus Therapeutics, Cantanhede, Portugal.
109
McGill University, Division of Experimental Medicine, Montreal, Canada.
110
McGill University, The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Child Health and Human Development Program, Montreal, Canada.
111
James Cook University, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, Centre for Biodiscovery and Molecular Development of Therapeutics, Cairns, Australia.
112
University of Gothenburg, Institute of Clinical Sciences at Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Biomaterials, Gothenburg, Sweden.
113
Evox Therapeutics Limited, Oxford, UK.
114
Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
115
University of Virginia Health System, Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
116
CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, Exosomes Laboratory & Metabolomics Platform, Derio, Spain.
117
IKERBASQUE Research Science Foundation, Bilbao, Spain.
118
University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.
119
Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.
120
University of Toronto, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, Canada.
121
University of Colorado, School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Cell Sight-Ocular Stem Cell and Regeneration Program, Aurora, CO, USA.
122
German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Applied Tumor Biology, Heidelberg, Germany.
123
University Hospital Heidelberg, Institute of Pathology, Applied Tumor Biology, Heidelberg, Germany.
124
Helmholtz-Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.
125
Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland, Saarbrücken, Germany.
126
Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
127
Karolinska Institute, Department of Medicine Solna, Division for Immunology and Allergy, Stockholm, Sweden.
128
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Hospital Universitari and Health Sciences Research Institute Germans Trias i Pujol, Department of Pathology, Barcelona, Spain.
129
University College London, London, UK.
130
Helmholtz Center Munich German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit Gene Vectors, Munich, Germany.
131
INSERM U1110, Strasbourg, France.
132
Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
133
POSTECH (Pohang University of Science and Technology), Department of Life Sciences, Pohang, South Korea.
134
University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Essen, Germany.
135
Paracelsus Medical University, GMP Unit, Salzburg, Austria.
136
University of Oxford, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, Oxford, UK.
137
Karolinska Institute, Clinical Research Center, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
138
BC Cancer, Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, Canada.
139
Simon Fraser University, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Burnaby, Canada.
140
University Medical Center Göttingen, Developmental Biochemistry, Göttingen, Germany.
141
University Medical Center Göttingen, Hematology and Oncology, Göttingen, Germany.
142
IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION), Milan, Italy.
143
Loyola University Chicago, Department of Urology, Maywood, IL, USA.
144
Aalborg University Hospital, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg, Denmark.
145
Aalborg University, Clinical Institute, Aalborg, Denmark.
146
University of Massachusetts Medical School, RNA Therapeutics Institute, Worcester, MA, USA.
147
University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
148
Scintillon Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.
149
University of California, San Diego, Department of Neurosurgery, La Jolla, CA, USA.
150
Aberystwyth University, Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth, United Kingdom.
151
Imperial College London, London, UK.
152
MRC The Gambia, Fajara, The Gambia.
153
University Clinic Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
154
Hasselt University, Biomedical Research Institute (BIOMED), Department of Medicine and Life Sciences, Hasselt, Belgium.
155
Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Guangzhou, China.
156
Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Unit of Immunotherapy of Human Tumors, Milan, Italy.
157
The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
158
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Smidt Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
159
Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
160
University of Hertfordshire, School of Life and Medical Sciences, Biosciences Research Group, Hatfield, UK.
161
Istanbul University Oncology Institute, Basic Oncology Department, Istanbul, Turkey.
162
German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division Signaling and Functional Genomics, Heidelberg, Germany.
163
Copenhagen Lupus and Vasculitis Clinic, Section 4242 - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
164
University of Copenhagen, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Copenhagen, Denmark.
165
University of Maryland, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, College Park, MD, USA.
166
Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Rochester, MN, USA.
167
Department of Urology, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
168
University of Manchester, Division of Cancer Sciences, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Manchester, UK.
169
National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Center for Cancer Research, Bethesda, MD, USA.
170
Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
171
University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
172
City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Beckman Research Institute, Department of Molecular Medicine, Duarte, CA, USA.
173
German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute for Virology, Munich, Germany.
174
University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Cancer Biology, Metastasis Research Center, Houston, TX, USA.
175
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baltimore, MD, USA.
176
National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Center for Cancer Research, Laboratory of Pathology, Bethesda, MD, USA.
177
National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.
178
University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.
179
University of Michigan, Biointerfaces Institute, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
180
University of Michigan, Department of Urology, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
181
École normale supérieure, Paris, France.
182
Federal Research and Clinical Center of Physical-Chemical Medicine, Moscow, Russia.
183
Oslo University Hospital, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Blood Cell Research Group, Oslo, Norway.
184
Kyung Hee University, Department of Applied Chemistry, Yongin, Korea.
185
Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.
186
University of Toronto, Department of Medical Biophysics, Toronto, Canada.
187
Duke University, Department of Ophthalmology, Durham, NC, USA.
188
West Virginia University, Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering and WVU Cancer Institute, Morgantown, WV, USA.
189
West Virginia University, Department of Microbiology Immunology and Cell Biology, Morgantown, WV, USA.
190
German Armed Forces Central Hospital, Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Koblenz, Germany.
191
Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Medicine II, Homburg, Germany.
192
University of Belgrade, Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy, INEP, Belgrade, Serbia.
193
University of Mainz, Institute of Developmental Biology and Neurobiology, Mainz, Germany.
194
University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Institute of Neuropathology, Hamburg, Germany.
195
Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia.
196
Central Research Laboratories, Sysmex Co., Kobe, Japan.
197
Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
198
Hasselt University, Biomedical Research Institute (BIOMED), Hasselt, Belgium.
199
Finnish Red Cross Blood Service, Research and Development, Helsinki, Finland.
200
Cincinnati Cancer Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
201
University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
202
Thomas Jefferson University, Sidney Kimmel Medical School, Department of Cancer Biology, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
203
University of Virginia, Flow Cytometry Core, School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
204
University of California, San Diego, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, La Jolla, CA, USA.
205
AstraZeneca, Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden.
206
Eulji University, School of Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea.
207
Genome Institute of Singapore, ASTAR, Singapore.
208
Federal University of Paraná, Department of Genetics, Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Curitiba, Brazil.
209
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
210
University of California, San Diego, Department of Pediatrics, San Diego, CA, USA.
211
University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, Canada.
212
University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Department of Medicine, Cambridge NIHR BRC Cell Phenotyping Hub, Cambridge, UK.
213
Semmelweis University, Department of Physiology, Budapest, Hungary.
214
Institute of Medical Biology (IMB), Agency for Science and Technology (ASTAR), Singapore.
215
Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre, Riga, Latvia.
216
Oslo University Hospital-The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Oslo, Norway.
217
Utrecht University, University Medical Center Utrecht, Center for Molecular Medicine & Regenerative Medicine Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
218
Stellenbosch University, Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
219
Trinity College Dublin, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panoz Institute & Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Dublin, Ireland.
220
Harvard University, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
221
Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, NeuroRepair Department, Warsaw, Poland.
222
K.G. Jebsen Brain Tumor Research Centre, Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
223
Utrecht University, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Institute of Neurosciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
224
Utrecht University, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
225
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
226
Universitat de València, Departament de Farmàcia i Tecnologia Farmacèutica i Parasitologia, Àrea de Parasitologia, Valencia, Spain.
227
Universitat de València, Health Research Institute La Fe, Joint Research Unit on Endocrinology, Nutrition and Clinical Dietetics, Valencia, Spain.
228
Università degli Studi di Milano, Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, EPIGET LAB, Milan, Italy.
229
A.C.Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, Brazil.
230
University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Gothenburg, Sweden.
231
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
232
SickKids Hospital, Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Toronto, Canada.
233
University of Toronto, Department of Anesthesia, Toronto, Canada.
234
Florida State University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
235
The School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
236
University of Antwerp, Centre for Proteomics, Antwerp, Belgium.
237
Georg-Speyer-Haus Institute for Tumor Biology and Experimental Therapy, Frankfurt, Germany.
238
QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Australia.
239
Aalborg University Hospital, Department of Clinical Immunology, Aalborg, Denmark.
240
EVSEARCH.DK, Denmark.
241
Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
242
Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), NARILIS, Namur, Belgium.
243
Université Catholique de Louvain, CHU UCL Namur, Hematology-Hemostasis Laboratory, Yvoir, Belgium.
244
University of Padova, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Padova, Italy.
245
Brown University, Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI, USA.
246
German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner Site Freiburg and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
247
Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Institute for Infection Prevention and Hospital Epidemiology, Freiburg, Germany.
248
Aarhus University, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus, Denmark.
249
Sorbonne Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Research Unit Biology of Adaptation and Aging (B2A), Team Compensation in Neurodegenerative and Aging (Brain-C), Paris, France.
250
University of Pisa, Centro Dipartimentale di Biologia Cellulare Cardio-Respiratoria, Pisa, Italy.
251
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Microbiologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
252
National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD, USA.
253
University of Liège, GIGA-R(MBD), PSI Laboratory, Liège, Belgium.
254
Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute, Epigenetics & Cellular Senescence Group, London, UK.
255
National Cancer Center Research Institute, Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
256
McGill University, The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada.
257
IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz-UAM, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Madrid, Spain.
258
Spanish Kidney Research Network, REDINREN, Madrid, Spain.
259
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Madrid, Spain.
260
Graduate School of Public Health at the University of Pittsburgh, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
261
AstraZeneca, Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, Cambridge, UK.
262
Statens Serum Institut, Department of Autoimmunology and Biomarkers, Copenhagen, Denmark.
263
University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.
264
University of Buenos Aires, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas en Retrovirus y SIDA (INBIRS), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
265
Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
266
Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO), Molecular Oncology Programme, Microenvironment and Metastasis Laboratory, Madrid, Spain.
267
IRCCS - Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Laboratory for Orthopaedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, Bologna, Italy.
268
The Scripps Research Institute-Scripps Florida, Department of Molecular Medicine, Jupiter, FL, USA.
269
Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
270
Duke University Medical Center, Departments of Medicine and Immunology, Durham, NC, USA.
271
Durham VAMC, Medical Research Service, Durham, NC, USA.
272
Philipps University Marburg, Experimental Tumor Biology, Marburg, Germany.
273
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Santiago, Chile.
274
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Hematology-Oncology, Santiago, Chile.
275
CNR Institute of Neuroscience, Milan, Italy.
276
University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
277
Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA.
278
The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Department of Medicine, Providence, RI, USA.
279
Department of Veterans Affairs, San Francisco, CA, USA.
280
University of Palermo, Department of Biopathology and Medical Biotechnologies, Palermo, Italy.
281
McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
282
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
283
Universidade Federal de Paraná, Paraná, Brazil.
284
Institut Curie, CNRS UMR144, PSL Research University, Paris, France.
285
University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
286
Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Rehovot, Israel.
287
University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurosurgery, Hamburg, Germany.
288
University of Minnesota Medical School, Institute on the Biology of Aging and Metabolism, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
289
CNC, Coimbra, Portugal.
290
Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Salzburg, Austria.
291
Spinal Cord Injury & Tissue Regeneration Center Salzburg (SCI-TReCS), Salzburg, Austria.
292
University of Lyon, Lyon-Sud Faculty of Medicine, CarMeN Laboratory (UMR INSERM 1060-INRA 1397), Pierre-Bénite, France.
293
Maastricht University, GROW, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht Radiation Oncology (MaastRO) Lab, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
294
Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Experimental Medicine, Rome, Italy.
295
West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA.
296
American Red Cross, Scientific Affairs, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
297
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Medicine, Cardiology, New York City, NY, USA.
298
Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases, Santiago, Chile.
299
University of Chile, Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Science, Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology and Nanotoxicology, Santiago, Chile.
300
Clínica las Condes, Extracellular Vesicles in Personalized Medicine Group, Santiago, Chile.
301
Oregon Health & Science University, Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Portland, OR, USA.
302
Technische Universität Darmstadt, Department of Biology, Darmstadt, Germany.
303
University Medical Center Utrecht, Laboratory for Clinical Chemistry & Hematology, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
304
University of Toronto, Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, Toronto, Canada.
305
University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
306
University of California, Los Angeles, California NanoSystems Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
307
University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
308
University of California, Los Angeles, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
309
University of Gothenburg, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Gothenburg, Sweden.
310
Research Service, Olin E. Teague Veterans' Medical Center, Temple, TX, USA.
311
Texas A&M University College of Medicine, Institute for Regenerative Medicine and Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, College Station, TX, USA.
312
Cancer Institute of JFCR, Tokyo, Japan.
313
University of Helsinki, EV Core Facility, Helsinki, Finland.
314
University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Molecular and Integrative Biosciences Research Programme, EV group, Helsinki, Finland.
315
INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Porto, Portugal.
316
University of Porto, i3S-Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Porto, Portugal.
317
University of Porto, ICBAS - Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Porto, Portugal.
318
Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Center, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland.
319
Kansas State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Manhattan, KS, USA.
320
René Rachou Institute/FIOCRUZ, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
321
The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
322
Washington University, Saint Louis, MO, USA.
323
Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
324
Massachusetts General Cancer Center, Boston, MA, USA.
325
FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg, Transfusion and Haemostaseology Department, Erlangen, Germany.
326
University of Auckland, Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, Auckland, New Zealand.
327
Hiroshima University, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hiroshima, Japan.
328
University of Michigan, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
329
University of Michigan, Department of Internal Medicine - Hematology/Oncology Division, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
330
University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
331
Georgetown University, Department of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.
332
Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Molecular Medicine & Biotechnology, Lucknow, India.
333
National University of Singapore, Faculty of Dentistry, Singapore.
334
INSERM U1068, Aix Marseille University, CNRS UMR7258, Marseille, France.
335
UNIFESP, Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Diadema, Brazil.
336
Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Functional Genomics Unit, Montevideo, Uruguay.
337
Universidad de la República, Faculty of Science, Nuclear Research Center, Analytical Biochemistry Unit, Montevideo, Uruguay.
338
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
339
University of Perugia, Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, Perugia, Italy.
340
University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
341
TGen, Neurogenomics Division, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
342
Center for Psychiatry and Neuroscience, INSERM U894, Paris, France.
343
Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC, Erasmus Optical Imaging Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
344
Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester, MN, USA.
345
IPATIMUP, Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
346
University of Porto, Faculty of Pharmacy (FFUP), Porto, Portugal.
347
University of Kentucky, College of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Lexington, KY, USA.
348
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
349
The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia.
350
The University of Melbourne, The Department of Medicine, Melbourne, Australia.
351
UMR 7365 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France.
352
Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo, Norway.
353
Regional Research Network on Extracellular Vesicles, RRNEV, Oslo, Norway.
354
University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo, Norway.
355
University of Gothenburg, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Mölndal, Sweden.
356
Case Western Reserve University, Department of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.
357
University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.
358
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Nashville, TN, USA.
359
Danube University Krems, Department for Biomedical Research and Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Therapy Approaches in Sepsis, Krems an der Donau, Austria.
360
University of Würzburg, Rudolf Virchow Center, Würzburg, Germany.
361
The University of Vermont Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Burlington, VT, USA.
362
University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Aachen, Germany.
363
Karolinska Institute, Department of Medicine and Center for Molecular Medicine, Respiratory Medicine Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
364
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering, Wenzhou, China.
365
Houston Methodist Research Institute, Department of Nanomedicine, Houston, TX, USA.
366
Mayo Clinic, Department of Transplantation Medicine/Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Jacksonville, FL, USA.
367
George Papanicolaou Hospital, Public Cord Blood Bank, Department of Haematology - BMT Unit, Thessaloniki, Greece.
368
Universidade Federal de São Paulo Campus Diadema, Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Laboratório de Imunologia Celular e Bioquímica de Fungos e Protozoários, São Paulo, Brazil.
369
Xiamen University, Department of Chemical Biology, Xiamen, China.
370
Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria la Princesa (IIS-IP), Madrid, Spain.
371
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Departamento de Biología Molecular, Madrid, Spain.
372
Tsinghua University, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing, China.
373
Technical University Eindhoven, Faculty Biomedical Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
374
University of Padova, Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science, Padova, Italy.
375
Institute of Physiology CAS, Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, BIOCEV, Vestec, Czech Republic.
376
Institute of Physiology CAS, Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Prague, Czech Republic.
377
University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Bioengineering, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
378
Vilnius University, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Physiology, Biochemistry, Microbiology and Laboratory Medicine, Vilnius, Lithuania.
379
Guangzhou Medical University, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences & the Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Key Laboratory of Molecular Target & Clinical Pharmacology, Guangzhou, China.
380
Karolinska Institute, Clinical Research Center, Unit for Molecular Cell and Gene Therapy Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
381
Aix-Marseille Université, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, INSERM U1068, CNRS UMR7258, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, Marseille, France.
382
KU Leuven (Leuven University), Department of Human Genetics, Leuven, Belgium.
383
University of California, Davis, Department of Nutrition, Davis, CA, USA.
384
Exosomics Siena SpA, Siena, Italy.

Abstract

The last decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of scientific publications describing physiological and pathological functions of extracellular vesicles (EVs), a collective term covering various subtypes of cell-released, membranous structures, called exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, ectosomes, oncosomes, apoptotic bodies, and many other names. However, specific issues arise when working with these entities, whose size and amount often make them difficult to obtain as relatively pure preparations, and to characterize properly. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) proposed Minimal Information for Studies of Extracellular Vesicles ("MISEV") guidelines for the field in 2014. We now update these "MISEV2014" guidelines based on evolution of the collective knowledge in the last four years. An important point to consider is that ascribing a specific function to EVs in general, or to subtypes of EVs, requires reporting of specific information beyond mere description of function in a crude, potentially contaminated, and heterogeneous preparation. For example, claims that exosomes are endowed with exquisite and specific activities remain difficult to support experimentally, given our still limited knowledge of their specific molecular machineries of biogenesis and release, as compared with other biophysically similar EVs. The MISEV2018 guidelines include tables and outlines of suggested protocols and steps to follow to document specific EV-associated functional activities. Finally, a checklist is provided with summaries of key points.

KEYWORDS:

ectosomes; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; guidelines; microparticles; microvesicles; minimal information requirements; reproducibility; rigor; standardization

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