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Nat Neurosci. 2018 Apr;21(4):506-516. doi: 10.1038/s41593-018-0106-4. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

B-1a lymphocytes promote oligodendrogenesis during brain development.

Author information

1
World Premier International Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.
2
World Premier International Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. yamashita@molneu.med.osaka-u.ac.jp.
3
Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. yamashita@molneu.med.osaka-u.ac.jp.
4
Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. yamashita@molneu.med.osaka-u.ac.jp.

Abstract

During brain development, the immune system mediates neurogenesis, gliogenesis and synapse formation. However, it remains unclear whether peripheral lymphocytes contribute to brain development. Here we identified the subtypes of lymphocytes that are present in neonatal mouse brains and investigated their functions. We found that B-1a cells, a subtype of B cells, were abundant in the neonatal mouse brain and infiltrated into the brain in a CXCL13-CXCR5-dependent manner. B-1a cells promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte-precursor cells (OPCs) in vitro, and depletion of B-1a cells from developing brains resulted in a reduction of numbers of OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, neutralizing Fcα/μR, the receptor for the Fc region of IgM secreted by B-1a cells, inhibited OPC proliferation and reduced the proportion of myelinated axons in neonatal mouse brains. Our results demonstrate that B-1a cells infiltrate into the brain and contribute to oligodendrogenesis and myelination by promoting OPC proliferation via IgM-Fcα/μR signaling.

PMID:
29507409
DOI:
10.1038/s41593-018-0106-4

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