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Nat Commun. 2019 Mar 4;10(1):1035. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-08934-3.

Discovery of key whole-brain transitions and dynamics during human wakefulness and non-REM sleep.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, OX3 7JX, Oxford, UK. angus.stevner@psych.ox.ac.uk.
2
Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN), Aarhus University, 8000, Aarhus, Denmark. angus.stevner@psych.ox.ac.uk.
3
Center for Music in the Brain (MIB), Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8000, Aarhus, Denmark. angus.stevner@psych.ox.ac.uk.
4
Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, Oxford Centre for Human Brain Activity (OHBA), University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, OX3 7JX, Oxford, UK.
5
Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, OX3 7JX, Oxford, UK.
6
Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal.
7
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, 03755, Hanover, NH, USA.
8
Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs., Lyngby, Denmark.
9
Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, 1105 BA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
10
Department of Neurology, University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Christian-Alrbrechts-Universität, 24105, Kiel, Germany.
11
Department of Neurology and Brain Imaging Center, Goethe University, 60528, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
12
Center for Music in the Brain (MIB), Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8000, Aarhus, Denmark.
13
Center for Brain and Cognition, Computational Neuroscience Group, Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Roc Boronat 138, Barcelona, 08018, Spain.
14
Institució Catalana de la Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona, 08010, Spain.
15
Department of Neuropsychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.
16
School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.
17
Departments of Integrative Neurophysiology and Psychiatry GGZ-InGeest, Amsterdam Neuroscience, VU University and Medical Center, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
18
Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN), Aarhus University, 8000, Aarhus, Denmark.

Abstract

The modern understanding of sleep is based on the classification of sleep into stages defined by their electroencephalography (EEG) signatures, but the underlying brain dynamics remain unclear. Here we aimed to move significantly beyond the current state-of-the-art description of sleep, and in particular to characterise the spatiotemporal complexity of whole-brain networks and state transitions during sleep. In order to obtain the most unbiased estimate of how whole-brain network states evolve through the human sleep cycle, we used a Markovian data-driven analysis of continuous neuroimaging data from 57 healthy participants falling asleep during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and EEG. This Hidden Markov Model (HMM) facilitated discovery of the dynamic choreography between different whole-brain networks across the wake-non-REM sleep cycle. Notably, our results reveal key trajectories to switch within and between EEG-based sleep stages, while highlighting the heterogeneities of stage N1 sleep and wakefulness before and after sleep.

PMID:
30833560
PMCID:
PMC6399232
DOI:
10.1038/s41467-019-08934-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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