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SSM Popul Health. 2018 Dec 12;7:100339. doi: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2018.100339. eCollection 2019 Apr.

Soda, salad, and socioeconomic status: Findings from the Seattle Obesity Study (SOS).

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Box 353410, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
2
Center for Public Health Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Abstract

Background:

Documenting geographic disparities in dietary behaviors can help inform public health interventions at the local level.

Objective:

To study and visualize socioeconomic gradient in soda and salad consumption using a geo-localized measure of socioeconomic status in contrast to more traditional measures.

Methods:

Geo-localized dietary intake data came from the Seattle Obesity Study I, a population-based sample of King County adults (n=1099). Socio-demographic data and soda and salad consumption frequencies (times/week) were obtained by 20-min telephone survey. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data were used to construct Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores. Individual residential property values obtained from the King County tax assessor. Multivariable linear regressions examined socioeconomic gradient in the frequency of soda and salad consumption by residential property values, the primary independent variable, in comparison to annual household incomes and educational attainment, with adjustment for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Geographic disparities in soda and salad consumption by property value metric were illustrated at the census block level using modeled predicted marginal means.

Results:

Among all three socioeconomic indicators (income, education and residential property values), residential property values captured strongest gradient in soda and salad consumption. Higher quintiles of residential property values were associated with lower soda and higher salad consumption. Respondents living in the highest quintile of property values -1.04 fewer sodas per week (95% CI= -1.87, -0.21) and 0.89 more salads per week (95% CI= 0.36, 1.42), adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Residential property values illustrated geographic disparities in soda and salad consumption at the census-block level.

Conclusion:

Geo-localized disparities in food consumption patterns by neighborhood can inform current discourse on the socioeconomic determinants of health, while providing a useful tool for targeted interventions at the local level.

KEYWORDS:

Diet; Geographic information systems; Residential property values; Socioeconomic status

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