Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Pediatr. 2019 Mar 22. pii: S0022-3476(19)30246-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.02.022. [Epub ahead of print]

Prenatal Omega-6:Omega-3 Ratio and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms.

Author information

1
Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), Barcelona, Spain; Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain; Biomedical Research Networking Centres Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: monica.lopez@isglobal.org.
2
Mental Health Foundation CPB-SSM, Barcelona, Spain.
3
Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), Barcelona, Spain; Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain; Biomedical Research Networking Centres Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
4
Biomedical Research Networking Centres Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Jaume I University-University of València, València, Spain.
5
Biomedical Research Networking Centres Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Jaume I University-University of València, València, Spain; Medicine Department, Jaume I University, Castelló de la Plana, Spain.
6
Biomedical Research Networking Centres Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; University of Basque Country, San Sebastián, Spain; Health Research Institute, BIODONOSTIA, San Sebastián, Spain; Sub-Directorate of Public Health of Gipuzkoa, Department of Health, Goverment of Basque Country, San Sebastián, Spain.
7
Biomedical Research Networking Centres Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; University of Basque Country, San Sebastián, Spain; Health Research Institute, BIODONOSTIA, San Sebastián, Spain.
8
Biomedical Research Networking Centres Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; IUOPA-Preventive Medicine and Public Health Area, University of Oviedo, Asturias, Spain.
9
Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Gastronomy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Biomedical Research Networking Centres Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN), Madrid, Spain.
10
Biomedical Research Networking Centres Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN), Madrid, Spain; Balearic Islands Health Research Institute, Son Espases University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
11
Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), Barcelona, Spain; Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain; Biomedical Research Networking Centres Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate whether higher omega-6:omega-3 (n-6:n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in cord plasma is associated with more symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at 4 and 7 years of age.

STUDY DESIGN:

This study was based on a population-based birth cohort in Spain. N-6 arachidonic acid and n-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were measured in cord plasma. At 4 years old, ADHD symptoms were reported by teachers through the ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed checklist (n = 580). At 7 years old, ADHD symptoms were reported by parents through the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised (short form; n = 642). The ADHD variable was treated as continuous (score) and as dichotomous (symptom diagnostic criteria). Child and family general characteristics were prospectively collected through questionnaires. We applied pooled zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regressions adjusted for covariates.

RESULTS:

A higher omega-6:omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in cord plasma was associated with a higher ADHD index (incidence rate ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03, 1.23) at 7 years old. The association was not observed at 4 years old (incidence rate ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.92-1.18). No associations were found using ADHD symptom diagnostic criteria.

CONCLUSIONS:

High prenatal omega-6:omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio preceded the appearance of subclinical ADHD symptoms during mid-childhood. Our findings suggest that maternal diet during pregnancy may modulate the risk to develop long-term ADHD symptoms in the offspring.

KEYWORDS:

children; long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; neurodevelopment; population-based cohort

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center