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J Pediatr. 2019 May;208:89-95.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.12.034. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Weight Gain Trajectories from Birth to Adolescence and Cardiometabolic Status in Adolescence.

Author information

1
Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; Department of Cardiology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia; Heart Research Institute, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address: Jennifer.Barraclough@hri.org.au.
2
Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Glebe, New South Wales, Australia; South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Sydney, Australia.
3
Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Glebe, New South Wales, Australia; Sydney Local Health District, New South Wales, Australia.
4
University of Sydney, Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, The Children's Hospital at Westmead Clinical School, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia.
5
University of Sydney, Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, The Children's Hospital at Westmead Clinical School, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia; The Heart Center for Children, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia.
6
Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; Department of Cardiology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia; Heart Research Institute, Sydney, Australia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the influence of the trajectory of weight gain from birth to adolescence on cardiovascular and metabolic risk. We studied childhood body mass index (BMI) trajectories from birth to age 14 years and cardiometabolic risk factors at age 14 years.

STUDY DESIGN:

In total, 410 children with weight and height measurements were assessed from birth throughout childhood, from the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study, a prospective community-based cohort. BMI trajectory groups were determined by latent basis growth mixture models. Of these subjects, 190 had detailed cardiometabolic risk factors assessed at age 14 years.

RESULTS:

Three BMI trajectory groups were identified; normal BMI, "early rising" excess BMI from 2 years, and "late rising" excess BMI from 5 years. Differences were found between normal and excess BMI in children at 14 years of age. In addition, children with an early rising BMI trajectory had statistically significantly higher central adiposity and a more atherogenic lipoprotein profile at age 14 years than children with a late rising BMI trajectory (P < .05). No differences between BMI trajectory groups in vascular structure or function was identified at age 14 years.

CONCLUSIONS:

Earlier onset of an elevated BMI trajectory persisting from birth to age 14 years results in an unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profile at age 14 years, including central adiposity and more atherogenic lipoproteins, independent of achieved BMI.

KEYWORDS:

adolescence; body mass index; cardiovascular risk

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