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J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Jun;58(6):618-627. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2018.09.447. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Parental Age and Differential Estimates of Risk for Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Findings From the Danish Birth Cohort.

Author information

1
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; Seaver Autism Center for Research and Treatment.
2
Aarhus University.
3
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.
4
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Tics, OCD, and Related Disorders.
5
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; Seaver Autism Center for Research and Treatment; Friedman Brain Institute and Mindich Child Health and Development Institute.
6
Section for Epidemiology, the National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Aarhus.
7
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; Seaver Autism Center for Research and Treatment; Friedman Brain Institute and Mindich Child Health and Development Institute; Institute for Translational Epidemiology.
8
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Tics, OCD, and Related Disorders; Friedman Brain Institute and Mindich Child Health and Development Institute. Electronic address: Dorothy.Grice@mssm.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Parental age at birth has been shown to affect the rates of a range of neurodevelopmental disorders, but the understanding of the mechanisms through which it mediates different outcomes is still lacking. A population-based cohort was used to assess differential effects of parental age on estimates of risk across pediatric-onset neuropsychiatric disorders: autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's disorder/chronic tic disorder (TD/CT).

METHOD:

The study cohort included all singleton births in Denmark from 1980 through 2007 with full information on parental ages (N = 1,490,745) and was followed through December 31, 2013. Cases of ASD, ADHD, OCD, and TD/CT were identified in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the National Patient Register. Associations with parental age were modeled using a stratified Cox regression, allowing for changes in baseline diagnostic rates across time.

RESULTS:

Younger parental age was significantly associated with increased estimates of risk for ADHD and TD/CT, whereas older parental age was associated with ASD and OCD. Except for OCD, no evidence for differential effects of parental ages on male versus female offspring was observed.

CONCLUSION:

This study provides novel evidence for the association between age at parenthood and TD/CT and OCD and for the first time shows in a population-based sample that parental age confers differential risk rates for pediatric-onset psychiatric disorders. These results are consistent with a model of shared and unshared risk architecture for pediatric-onset neuropsychiatric conditions, highlighting unique contributions of maternal and paternal ages.

KEYWORDS:

maternal age; neurodevelopmental disorders; parental age; paternal age; psychiatric disorders

PMID:
30825496
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaac.2018.09.447

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