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Cell Metab. 2019 May 7;29(5):1028-1044. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.03.009. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Epigenetics in Human Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

Author information

1
Epigenetics and Diabetes Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Scania University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden. Electronic address: charlotte.ling@med.lu.se.
2
Epigenetics and Diabetes Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Scania University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.

Abstract

Epigenetic mechanisms control gene activity and the development of an organism. The epigenome includes DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA-mediated processes, and disruption of this balance may cause several pathologies and contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This Review summarizes epigenetic signatures obtained from human tissues of relevance for metabolism-i.e., adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islets, liver, and blood-in relation to obesity and T2D. Although this research field is still young, these comprehensive data support not only a role for epigenetics in disease development, but also epigenetic alterations as a response to disease. Genetic predisposition, as well as aging, contribute to epigenetic variability, and several environmental factors, including exercise and diet, further interact with the human epigenome. The reversible nature of epigenetic modifications holds promise for future therapeutic strategies in obesity and T2D.

KEYWORDS:

DNA methylation; aging; diet; epigenetics; exercise; histone modifications; obesity; physical activity; prediction; type 2 diabetes

PMID:
30982733
DOI:
10.1016/j.cmet.2019.03.009
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