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Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 May 14. pii: S1542-3565(19)30524-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2019.05.014. [Epub ahead of print]

Efficacy of Epicutaneous Immunotherapy in Children with Milk-Induced Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

Author information

1
Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, The Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address: spergel@email.chop.edu.
2
Westat, Rockville MD; Biostatistics and Data Management Core, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
3
Department of Pediatrics, The Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA.
4
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania.
5
Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA.
6
Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, The Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is caused by an immune response to specific food allergens. There are no approved therapies beyond avoidance of the allergen(s) or treatment of inflammation. Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) reduces features of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease in mice and pigs. We performed randomized, placebo-controlled study to determine the safety and efficacy of EPIT with Viaskin milk in children with milk-induced EoE.

METHODS:

In a double-blind study, 20 children (4-17 years old) with milk-induced EoE were randomly assigned to groups given EPIT with Viaskin milk (n=15) or placebo (n=5) for 9 months during a milk-free period, followed by milk-containing diet for 2 months with EPIT. Then, subjects underwent upper endoscopy analysis, biopsies were collected, and maximum esophageal eosinophil counts were determined and was the primary endpoint. After upper endoscopy, patients were given open-label EPIT for 11 months (open-label phase). The subjects were allowed to consume milk if they had maximum values of fewer than 10 eosinophils/high-power field (eos/hpf); otherwise, they remained on a milk-free diet until the last 2 months of the open-label phase.

RESULTS:

In the intent to treat population, there was no significant difference between the Viaskin milk group in mean eos/hpf (50.1 ± 43.97 eos/hpf) vs the placebo group (48.20 ± 56.98 eos/hpf). However, in the per-protocol population (7 patients given Viaskin milk and 2 patients given placebo), patients given Viaskin milk patients had a significantly lower mean eos/hpf count (25.57 ± 31.19) than patients given placebo (95.00 ± 63.64) (p=0.038). At the end of the open-label phase, 9 of 19 evaluable subjects had mean values of fewer than 15 eos/hpf (47% response). The number of adverse events did not differ significantly between the Viaskin milk and placebo groups; there was 1 serious adverse event in the placebo group.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a pilot study of pediatric patients with EoE given EPIT with Viaskin milk or placebo for 11 months, we found no significant difference between groups for the maximum eosinophil count at the end of the study. However, findings from a per-protocol analysis indicate that Viaskin milk can reduce eos/hpf. At study completion, 47% of patients who continued open-label Viaskin milk for an additional 11 months had mean values of fewer than 15 eos/hpf. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02579876.

KEYWORDS:

Eosinophilic Esophagitis; Epicutaneous Immunotherapy; clinical trial; esophagus; food allergy; immune regulation; inflammation

PMID:
31100455
DOI:
10.1016/j.cgh.2019.05.014

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