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Biosens Bioelectron. 2019 Apr 15;131:257-266. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2019.01.051. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Facile fabrication of flexible glutamate biosensor using direct writing of platinum nanoparticle-based nanocomposite ink.

Author information

1
Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Center for Implantable Device, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.
3
College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.
4
Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon, South Korea.
5
Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Center for Implantable Device, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA; College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.
6
Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Center for Implantable Device, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. Electronic address: hwlee@purdue.edu.

Abstract

Glutamate excitotoxicity is a pathology in which excessive glutamate can cause neuronal damage and degeneration. It has also been linked to secondary injury mechanisms in traumatic spinal cord injury. Conventional bioanalytical techniques used to characterize glutamate levels in vivo, such as microdialysis, have low spatiotemporal resolution, which has impeded our understanding of this dynamic event. In this study, we present an amperometric biosensor fabricated using a simple direct ink writing technique for the purpose of in vivo glutamate monitoring. The biosensor is fabricated by immobilizing glutamate oxidase on nanocomposite electrodes made of platinum nanoparticles, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and a conductive polymer on a flexible substrate. The sensor is designed to measure extracellular dynamics of glutamate and other potential biomarkers during a traumatic spinal cord injury event. Here we demonstrate good sensitivity and selectivity of these rapidly prototyped implantable biosensors that can be inserted into a spinal cord and measure extracellular glutamate concentration. We show that our biosensors exhibit good flexibility, linear range, repeatability, and stability that are suitable for future in vivo evaluation.

KEYWORDS:

Additive manufacturing; Biosensor; Direct ink writing; Glutamate; Implantable; Rapid prototyping; Spinal cord injury

PMID:
30849725
DOI:
10.1016/j.bios.2019.01.051

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