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Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2018 Aug;17(4):1001-1009. doi: 10.1007/s10237-018-1008-9. Epub 2018 Mar 10.

Investigating the mechanical response of paediatric bone under bending and torsion using finite element analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
2
Insigneo Institute for in silico Medicine, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
3
Department of Oncology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. xinshan.li@sheffield.ac.uk.
5
Insigneo Institute for in silico Medicine, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. xinshan.li@sheffield.ac.uk.

Abstract

Fractures of bone account 25% of all paediatric injuries (Cooper et al. in J Bone Miner Res 19:1976-1981, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1359/JBMR.040902 ). These can be broadly categorised into accidental or inflicted injuries. The current clinical approach to distinguish between these two is based on the clinician's judgment, which can be subjective. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies on paediatric bone to provide evidence-based information on bone strength, mainly due to the difficulties of obtaining paediatric bone samples. There is a need to investigate the behaviour of children's bones under external loading. Such data will critically enhance our understanding of injury tolerance of paediatric bones under various loading conditions, related to injuries, such as bending and torsional loads. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the response of paediatric femora under two types of loading conditions, bending and torsion, using a CT-based finite element approach, and to determine a relationship between bone strength and age/body mass of the child. Thirty post-mortem CT scans of children aged between 0 and 3 years old were used in this study. Two different boundary conditions were defined to represent four-point bending and pure torsional loads. The principal strain criterion was used to estimate the failure moment for both loading conditions. The results showed that failure moment of the bone increases with the age and mass of the child. The predicted failure moment for bending, external and internal torsions were 0.8-27.9, 1.0-31.4 and 1.0-30.7 Nm, respectively. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on infant bone strength in relation to age/mass using models developed from modern medical images. This technology may in future help advance the design of child, car restrain system, and more accurate computer models of children.

KEYWORDS:

Femur strength; Finite element analysis; Injury tolerance; Paediatric long bone

PMID:
29525976
DOI:
10.1007/s10237-018-1008-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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