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JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 Mar;73(3):247-59. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.2923.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Youth Exposed to Antipsychotics: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Author information

Psychiatry Research, Zucker Hillside Hospital, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Glen Oaks, New York.
Department of Psychiatry, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
Unit for Psychiatric Research, Department of Psychiatry, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.
Department of Psychiatry, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark5Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey7Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
Physiotherapy Department, South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London, England9Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, London, England.
Department of Neurosciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, The College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York.
Department of Psychiatry, Social Psychiatry, and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
Child Study Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan16Department of Psychiatry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
Department of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
Department of Psychiatry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan17Department of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
Psychiatry Research, Zucker Hillside Hospital, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Glen Oaks, New York19Hofstra North Shore-Long Island Jewish School of Medicine, Hempstead, New York20The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New.

Erratum in



Antipsychotics are used increasingly in youth for nonpsychotic and off-label indications, but cardiometabolic adverse effects and (especially) type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk have raised additional concern.


To assess T2DM risk associated with antipsychotic treatment in youth.


Systematic literature search of PubMed and PsycINFO without language restrictions from database inception until May 4, 2015. Data analyses were performed in July 2015, and additional analyses were added in November 2015.


Longitudinal studies reporting on T2DM incidence in youth 2 to 24 years old exposed to antipsychotics for at least 3 months.


Two independent investigators extracted study-level data for a random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression of T2DM risk.


The coprimary outcomes were study-defined T2DM, expressed as cumulative T2DM risk or as T2DM incidence rate per patient-years. Secondary outcomes included the comparison of the coprimary outcomes in antipsychotic-treated youth with psychiatric controls not receiving antipsychotics or with healthy controls.


Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, including 185,105 youth exposed to antipsychotics and 310,438 patient-years. The mean (SD) age of patients was 14.1 (2.1) years, and 59.5% were male. The mean (SD) follow-up was 1.7 (2.3) years. Among them, 7 studies included psychiatric controls (1,342,121 patients and 2,071,135 patient-years), and 8 studies included healthy controls (298,803 patients and 463,084 patient-years). Antipsychotic-exposed youth had a cumulative T2DM risk of 5.72 (95% CI, 3.45-9.48; P < .001) per 1000 patients. The incidence rate was 3.09 (95% CI, 2.35-3.82; P < .001) cases per 1000 patient-years. Compared with healthy controls, cumulative T2DM risk (odds ratio [OR], 2.58; 95% CI, 1.56-4.24; P < .0001) and incidence rate ratio (IRR) (IRR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.71-5.35; P < .0001) were significantly greater in antipsychotic-exposed youth. Similarly, compared with psychiatric controls, antipsychotic-exposed youth had significantly higher cumulative T2DM risk (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.50-52.90; P < .0001) and IRR (IRR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31-2.44; P < .0001). In multivariable meta-regression analyses of 10 studies, greater cumulative T2DM risk was associated with longer follow-up (P < .001), olanzapine prescription (P < .001), and male sex (P = .002) (r(2) = 1.00, P < .001). Greater T2DM incidence was associated with second-generation antipsychotic prescription (P ≤ .050) and less autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (P = .048) (r(2) = 0.21, P = .044).


Although T2DM seems rare in antipsychotic-exposed youth, cumulative risk and exposure-adjusted incidences and IRRs were significantly higher than in healthy controls and psychiatric controls. Olanzapine treatment and antipsychotic exposure time were the main modifiable risk factors for T2DM development in antipsychotic-exposed youth. Antipsychotics should be used judiciously and for the shortest necessary duration, and their efficacy and safety should be monitored proactively.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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