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J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Mar 31;13:12. doi: 10.1186/s12970-016-0124-0. eCollection 2016.

Acute and chronic safety and efficacy of dose dependent creatine nitrate supplementation and exercise performance.

Author information

1
Department of Health and Kinesiology, Exercise and Sport Nutrition Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4243 USA.
2
Department of Health and Kinesiology, Center for Translational Research in Aging and Longevity, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4243 USA.
3
United States Military-Baylor University Graduate Program in Nutrition, Joint Base, San Antonio, TX 78234 USA.
4
Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4243 USA.
5
Department of Health and Kinesiology, Human Countermeasures Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4243 USA.
6
Department of Health and Kinesiology, Muscle Biology Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4243 USA.
7
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4243 USA.
8
Nutrabolt, Bryan, TX 77807 USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Creatine monohydrate (CrM) and nitrate are popular supplements for improving exercise performance; yet have not been investigated in combination. We performed two studies to determine the safety and exercise performance-characteristics of creatine nitrate (CrN) supplementation.

METHODS:

Study 1 participants (N = 13) ingested 1.5 g CrN (CrN-Low), 3 g CrN (CrN-High), 5 g CrM or a placebo in a randomized, crossover study (7d washout) to determine supplement safety (hepatorenal and muscle enzymes, heart rate, blood pressure and side effects) measured at time-0 (unsupplemented), 30-min, and then hourly for 5-h post-ingestion. Study 2 participants (N = 48) received the same CrN treatments vs. 3 g CrM in a randomized, double-blind, 28d trial inclusive of a 7-d interim testing period and loading sequence (4 servings/d). Day-7 and d-28 measured Tendo™ bench press performance, Wingate testing and a 6x6-s bicycle ergometer sprint. Data were analyzed using a GLM and results are reported as mean ± SD or mean change ± 95 % CI.

RESULTS:

In both studies we observed several significant, yet stochastic changes in blood markers that were not indicative of potential harm or consistent for any treatment group. Equally, all treatment groups reported a similar number of minimal side effects. In Study 2, there was a significant increase in plasma nitrates for both CrN groups by d-7, subsequently abating by d-28. Muscle creatine increased significantly by d-7 in the CrM and CrN-High groups, but then decreased by d-28 for CrN-High. By d-28, there were significant increases in bench press lifting volume (kg) for all groups (PLA, 126.6, 95 % CI 26.3, 226.8; CrM, 194.1, 95 % CI 89.0, 299.2; CrN-Low, 118.3, 95 % CI 26.1, 210.5; CrN-High, 267.2, 95 % CI 175.0, 359.4, kg). Only the CrN-High group was significantly greater than PLA (p < 0.05). Similar findings were observed for bench press peak power (PLA, 59.0, 95 % CI 4.5, 113.4; CrM, 68.6, 95 % CI 11.4, 125.8; CrN-Low, 40.9, 95 % CI -9.2, 91.0; CrN-High, 60.9, 95 % CI 10.8, 111.1, W) and average power.

CONCLUSIONS:

Creatine nitrate delivered at 3 g was well-tolerated, demonstrated similar performance benefits to 3 g CrM, in addition, within the confines of this study, there were no safety concerns.

KEYWORDS:

Creatine; Creatine nitrate; Exercise performance; Nitrate; Nutrition; Supplementation

PMID:
27034623
PMCID:
PMC4815124
DOI:
10.1186/s12970-016-0124-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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