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Radiology. 2012 Oct;265(1):303-13. Epub 2012 Aug 28.

MR imaging-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy for conformal treatment of prostate tissue: initial feasibility in humans.

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Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Ave, Room C713, Toronto, ON, Canada M4N 3M5.



To evaluate the feasibility and safety of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy for prostate cancer in humans.


This pilot study was approved by the institutional review board and was performed in eight men (mean age, 60 years; range, 49-70 years) with localized prostate cancer (Gleason score≤7, prostate-specific antigen level #15 μg/L) immediately before radical prostatectomy. All patients provided written informed consent. This phase 0 feasibility and safety study is the first evaluation in humans. Transurethral ultrasound therapy was performed with the patient under spinal anesthesia by using a clinical 1.5-T MR unit. Patients then underwent radical prostatectomy, and the resected gland was sliced in the plane of treatment to compare the MR imaging measurements with the pattern of thermal damage. The overall procedure time and coagulation rate were measured. In addition, the spatial targeting accuracy was evaluated, as was the thermal history along the thermal damage boundaries in the gland.


The average procedure time was 3 hours, with 2 or fewer hours spent in the MR unit. The treatment was well tolerated by all patients, and a temperature uncertainty of less than 2°C was observed in the treatments. The mean temperature and thermal dose measured along the boundary of thermal coagulation were 52.3°C±2.1 and 3457 (cumulative equivalent minutes at 43°C)±5580, respectively. The mean treatment rate was 0.5 mL/min, and a spatial targeting accuracy of -1.0 mm±2.6 was achieved.


MR imaging-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy is feasible, safe, and well tolerated. This technology could be an attractive approach for whole-gland or focal therapy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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