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One Health. 2017 Jul 1;4:1-13. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2017.06.001. eCollection 2017 Dec.

Emerging arboviruses: Why today?

Author information

1
Emergence des Pathologies Virales (EPV: Aix-Marseille Université-IRD 190-INSERM 1207-EHESP), Marseille, France.
2
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Modelling/Molecular Biology, Domain for Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
3
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology (IMBIM), Zoonosis Science Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
4
Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, United States.
5
KS Biosecurity Research Institute, Kansas State University, Manhattan, United States.
6
Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection, APHM Public Hospitals of Marseille, Marseille, France.

Abstract

The recent global (re)emergence of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as chikungunya and Zika virus, was widely reported in the media as though it was a new phenomenon. This is not the case. Arboviruses and other human microbial pathogens have been (re)emerging for centuries. The major difference today is that arbovirus emergence and dispersion are more rapid and geographically extensive, largely due to intensive growth of global transportation systems, arthropod adaptation to increasing urbanisation, our failure to contain mosquito population density increases and land perturbation. Here we select examples of (re)emerging pathogenic arboviruses and explain the reasons for their emergence and different patterns of dispersal, focusing particularly on the mosquito vectors which are important determinants of arbovirus emergence. We also attempt to identify arboviruses likely to (re)emerge in the future.

KEYWORDS:

Anthropology,; Arthropods,; Dispersal,; Emerging arboviruses,; Evolution,; Global distribution; Mosquitoes,

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